Quantum Light Harvesting Hints at Entirely New Form of Computing Physicists have long known that plants and bacteria convert light into chemical energy in a way that is hugely efficient. But only in recent years have they discovered that the molecular machines behind this process rely on quantum mechanics to do the job. That’s a big surprise because of the temperatures involved. Today, Gabor Vattay at Eotvos University in Budapest and Stuart Kauffman at the University of Vermont in Burlington have the answer. The quantum processes must studied in light harvesting systems occur in a structure known as the Fenna-Matthews-Olson or FMO complex, a huge pigment protein that is part of the light-gathering machinery in green sulfur bacteria. When light hits the FMO complex, the energy must travel across the protein matrix until it reaches a reaction centre. That’s puzzling because the only way for the light energy to find a reaction centre is to bounce through the protein network at random, like a ricocheting billiard ball. The thinking goes like this.
New analysis rescues quantum wave-particle duality A basic principle of quantum mechanics has been reaffirmed. Stop the presses. (Or start the tweeting.) In 2012, experimenters in Germany had supposedly shown that you could observe both wave and particle properties of light in one experiment. That result defied the principle of wave-particle duality: waves can sometimes be particles (and particles can sometimes be waves), but never both at the same time. It’s no surprise, really, for quantum physics to withstand another assault. When Bohr developed his famous quantum model of the hydrogen atom in 1913, hope was high that the new quantum physics, introduced by Max Planck in 1900, would solve key problems without creating news ones. Einstein caused the most trouble. But a century later, Einstein insisted that only photons could explain the photoelectric effect, in which light hitting a metal causes the metal to eject electrons. By the 1920s, though, Einstein didn’t seem so dumb. Whoa – faster than light? But here’s the quantum catch.
10 Ways the Next Ten Years are Going to be Mind-Blowing We are living in an extremely exciting time in terms of science and technology. Things that have always been considered science fiction are becoming normal day-to-day components of our lives. And while we have been seeing invention after breakthrough over and over in the last couple of decades, this next ten years is going to blow everything else out of the water. The awesome thing about all these scientific discoveries it that they create technology that allows us to make more breakthroughs even faster. Our ability to innovate is increasing exponentially as the years go by. 1) Bio Technology Bionic Hand controlled by brain signals Okay, it doesn’t let you crush rocks like you would think, BUT it does allow people without fingers to have fully functional hands that can pick up and handle delicate objects. 2) Architecture Revolving Tower in Dubai All of that aesthetic stuff is great and all, but the real innovation comes from the wind turbines built in between each floor. Speed Trending
This is what the death of Moore’s law looks like: EUV rollout slowed, 450mm wafers halted, and an uncertain path beyond 14nm There have been a number of events over the past few weeks that collectively point to serious problems ahead for the semiconductor market and all the players in that space. While some companies will be impacted more than others, the news isn’t great for anyone. The entire economic structure that was supposed to support both Intel and the major foundries as they moved to next-generation manufacturing technologies, such as 450mm wafers, extreme ultraviolet lithography, and 20nm CMOS, is on the verge of coming apart. 450mm wafers and EUV 18 months ago, TSMC, Intel, and Samsung made headlines when they all poured money into ASML’s efforts to develop 450mm wafers. The CEO of Applied Materials, Gary Dickerson, has stated that the 450mm wafer timeline “has definitely been pushed out from a timing standpoint.” TSMC’s talk on EUV at SPIE wasn’t kind – Image courtesy of EETimes One of the single greatest problems is source power. EUV was expected to bring lithography costs under control
Quantum Teleportation 25 Kilometers Away Physicists at the University of Geneva have succeeded in teleporting the quantum state of a photon to a crystal over 25 kilometers of optical fiber. The experiment shatters the previous record of 6 kilometers achieved 10 years ago by the same team. Passing from light into matter, using teleportation of a photon to a crystal, shows that, in quantum physics, it is not the composition of a particle which is important, but rather its state, since this can exist and persist outside such extreme differences as those which distinguish light from matter. The latest experiments have enabled verifying that the quantum state of a photon can be maintained whilst transporting it into a crystal without the two coming directly into contact. Crystals which contain photonic information after the teleportation. © GAP, University of Geneva (UNIGE) Memory After Triangulation So what exactly is this testing of quantum entaglement and its properties?
Africa’s Tech Edge How the continent's many obstacles, from widespread poverty to failed states, allowed African entrepreneurs to beat the West at reinventing money for the mobile age Mike McQuade It’s a painfully First World problem: Splitting dinner with friends, we do the dance of the seven credit cards. No one, it seems, carries cash anymore, so we blunder through the inconvenience that comes with our dependence on plastic. When I returned to the United States after living in Nairobi on and off for two years, these antiquated payment ordeals were especially frustrating. Every few weeks, I’d pull cash out of my American bank account and hand it to a contemplative young man stationed outside my local greengrocer. Africa’s lack of infrastructure investment during the 20th century created all sorts of vacuums to be filled by the 21st-century digital economy. For me, M-Pesa was convenient, often simpler than reaching for my credit card or counting out paper bills.
Quantum computing and new approaches to Artificial Intelligence could get the resources to achieve real breakthroughs in computing Ramez Naam made a case against a technological Singularity will take longer. Ramez gives examples and problems to achieving an intelligence explosion * the complexity of important problems like computational chemistry have exponentially increasing complexity - if designing intelligence is an N^2 problem, an AI that is 2x as intelligent as the entire team that built it (not just a single human) would be able to design a new AI that is only 70% as intelligent as itself * There are already entities with vastly greater than human intelligence working on the problem of augmenting their own intelligence. Let's focus on as a very particular example: The Intel Corporation. * should Intel, or Google, or some other organization succeed in building a smarter-than-human AI, it won't immediately be smarter than the entire set of humans and computers that built it, Quantum computers have the technological potential to more rapidly crack larger exponentially complex problems. Silicon quantum dots
Higgs Boson to the World Wide Web: 7 Big Discoveries Made at CERN The world's biggest atom smasher, where monumental discoveries such as the detection of the once-elusive Higgs boson particle and the creation of antimatter have occurred, is celebrating its 60th anniversary today (Sept. 29). Founded in 1954, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, or CERN, located near Geneva on the French-Swiss border, contains some of the largest and most advanced particle accelerators in the world. In honor of the lab's anniversary, here are a few of the greatest discoveries made at CERN over the past six decades. [Wacky Physics: The Coolest Little Particles in Nature] 1. The physics world erupted in excitement in July 2012, when scientists using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN announced they had detected a particle that looked to be the so-called Higgs boson. In the 1960s, British physicist Peter Higgs hypothesized the existence of a field through which all particles would be dragged — like marbles moving through molasses — giving the particles mass.
Five "Free Energy" Devices that Could Save You Thousands of Dollars Image credit: www.flickr.com/photos/cr03/42435041 “Free energy” devices are the most important inventions for helping us solve many of our financial problems. Many of these “free energy” generators have the ability to generate energy at a fraction of the cost of traditional energy generators. Imagine having a “free energy” device in your home that generates enough electricity to power all your appliances and electronic devices for the cost of 10 dollars or less per month. How would that change your financial life? Besides helping you save a lot of money from your electricity bill, “free energy” generators can dramatically reduce the cost of goods and services. By being able to dramatically reduce their expense, companies can sell their products and services at a very cheap price. Below is a list of five “free energy” devices that have the potential to save you thousands of dollars every year. 1. 2. 3. The quantum free energy (QFE) generator created by Dr. 4. 5. Sources:
Two Big Steps Toward the Quantum Computer It's a machine that could calculate solutions to problems so impossibly time-consuming that even the most powerful supercomputers could never handle them. And it would do so in an instant. This is the quantum computer, made possible by the bizarre nature of quantum mechanics. And though the idea is still in its infancy, it's no fantasy. Two research teams, at Harvard University and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Germany, have just announced that they have independently forged the building blocks for tomorrow's quantum computers. As they published today in the journal Nature (1, 2), the scientists discovered a way to hook up atoms and particles of light to create a new type of switch and logic-gate‚ quantum versions of the connecting structures that link bits of data in modern computers. Quantum Computers When you dive down into the circuits, all modern computers are basically the same: a huge collection of data arranged with simple rules. The Ol' Gate and Switch