Ancient Origins | Reconstructing the story of humanity's past Online features This web feature presents an online version of Jakelin Troy's book on Aboriginal breastplates titled King Plates: A History of Aboriginal Gorgets. Minor revisions and enhanced with the National Museum of Australia's collection of Aboriginal breastplates. A slideshow of images taken from different visits to ANZAC Cove. (2004) Student multimedia works inspired by the Australian Journeys gallery. (2009-11) This symposium explored the legacy of the 1948 American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land. A collection of photographs taken by people living in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, showing local landscapes, resources, cultural heritage and characters. (2004-06) The Museum collects cartoons to develop a visual archive of Australia's political history that is an important resource for the Museum and the nation in years to come. An online exhibition which shows people and places, the water quality and issues that communities along the Murray-Darling Basin are dealing with.
Encyclopedia of Earth Medieval peasants got more vacation time than you Life for the medieval peasant was certainly no picnic. His life was shadowed by fear of famine, disease and bursts of warfare. His diet and personal hygiene left much to be desired. Plowing and harvesting were backbreaking toil, but the peasant enjoyed anywhere from eight weeks to half the year off. As for the modern American worker? It wasn’t supposed to turn out this way: John Maynard Keynes, one of the founders of modern economics, made a famous prediction that by 2030, advanced societies would be wealthy enough that leisure time, rather than work, would characterize national lifestyles. What happened? Fast-forward to the 21st century, and the U.S. is the only advanced country with no national vacation policy whatsoever. Some blame the American worker for not taking what is her due. It’s true that the New Deal brought back some of the conditions that farm workers and artisans from the Middle Ages took for granted, but since the 1980s things have gone steadily downhill.
Asia was settled in multiple waves of migration, DNA study suggests An international team of researchers studying DNA patterns from modern and archaic humans has uncovered new clues about the movement and intermixing of populations more than 40,000 years ago in Asia. Using state-of-the-art genome analysis methods, scientists from Harvard Medical School and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, have found that Denisovans -- a recently identified group of archaic humans whose DNA was extracted last year from a finger bone excavated in Siberia -- contributed DNA not just to present-day New Guineans, but also to aboriginal Australian and Philippine populations. The study demonstrates that contrary to the findings of the largest previous genetic studies, modern humans settled Asia in more than one migration. According to David Reich, a professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, "Denisova DNA is like a medical imaging dye that traces a person's blood vessels. Genetic footprints The researchers concluded that:
China History: Chronology, Dynasty Qin Han Tang Song Yuan Ming Qing China, one of the countries that can boast of an ancient civilization, has a long and mysterious history - almost 5,000 years of it! Like most other great civilizations of the world, China can trace her culture back to a blend of small original tribes which have expanded till they became the great country we have today. It is recorded that Yuanmou man is the oldest hominoid in China and the oldest dynasty is Xia Dynasty. From the long history of China, there emerge many eminent people that have contributed a lot to the development of the whole country and to the enrichment of her history. Chinese society has progressed through five major stages - Primitive Society, Slave Society, Feudal Society, Semi-feudal and Semi-colonial Society, and Socialist Society. Chinese History Chronology
Ancestral Lines Evolutionary biologists use a cladogram, the treelike diagram of evolutionary branches or clades, to organize species into lines of evolutionary descent across time. Biologists use three types of evidence to deduce evolutionary connections: genetics, morphology, and geologic dating. (Behavior, normally a key part of evolutionary studies, can only be inferred in extinct species — for example, by examining the ecology in which the species flourished and the species adaptations for eating and locomotion.) Analyses of primate fossils and the genetic relatedness of living primates converge to the conclusion that humans and chimpanzees branched from a common ancestor about 7 million years ago. The rest of the puzzle must be deduced from morphology (physical form, as reconstructed from the bones) and geologic dating. The cladogram for human evolution shown above currently lacks key pieces of evidence. These are some of the most interesting but currently unanswered questions about human descent:
What America’s immigrants looked like when they arrived on Ellis Island We hear so often that America is "a nation of immigrants" or a "cultural mixing pot" that the phrase has become kind of a tired cliche. But actually seeing that history is a different story. The fascinating photographs below -- of people in their native costume passing through Ellis Island in the early 20th Century -- hint at just how incredible and unique America's history is as a nation of immigrants. These photos were taken by Augustus Sherman, an amateur photographer who worked as the chief registry clerk on Ellis Island from 1892 until 1925. Sherman snapped these photographs of people passing through customs in their native costume. They were published in National Geographic in 1907 and once hung on the walls in the headquarters of the federal Immigration Service in Manhattan, according to the Public Domain Review. The history of the island is not always a happy one: It also reflects deep racism and ethnic divisions. A German stowaway. Children and women from the Netherlands:
Studies Find Mysterious Link Between Native Americans And Indigenous Australasians Native Americans who live between the Artic and the southern tip of Chile are thought to have descended from Siberians who crossed the Bering land bridge from the Asian continent some 15,000 years ago. They are the so-called First Americans. But was there just one migration wave or were there multiple founding populations? Two major papers published this week take completely different views, though they’re now working together to see if their data and interpretations can be reconciled. Both studies uncovered a genetic link between Native Americans living in the Amazon today and indigenous groups in Australasia, which includes Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands in the Pacific. Origins and population history of Native Americans based on Raghavan et al. They estimate that ancestral Native Americans migrated from Siberia to the Americas no earlier than 23,000 years ago. Deep genetic affinities between Amazonian populations in South America and Australasians. Photo Gallery
Better Identification of Viking Corpses Reveals: Half of the Warriors Were Female Shield maidens are not a myth! A recent archaeological discovery has shattered the stereotype of exclusively male Viking warriors sailing out to war while their long-suffering wives wait at home with baby Vikings. (We knew it! We always knew it.) Plus, some other findings are challenging that whole “rape and pillage” thing, too. Researchers at the University of Western Australia decided to revamp the way they studied Viking remains. It’s been so difficult for people to envision women’s historical contributions as solely getting married and dying in childbirth, but you can’t argue with numbers—and fifty/fifty is pretty damn good. Women may have accompanied male Vikings in those early invasions of England, in much greater numbers than scholars earlier supposed, (Researcher) McLeod concludes. In many ways, this discovery is well-timed with the recent uproar over Thor becoming a title for both sexes instead of an exclusively male name.