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A Glossary of European Noble, Princely, Royal and Imperial Titles

A Glossary of European Noble, Princely, Royal and Imperial Titles
Outline. 1. Introduction. 2. Sovereigns and Sovereignty. 3. Nobles and Nobility. 4. Imperial Titles. 5. 5.1 Kings and Queens. 5.2 Other Ruling Titles. 5.3 The Pope. 6. 8.1. 9. 9.1. 1. 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5 Version History. 1.6. 1.7. 1.8. 1.9. 2. "Sovereign" (in the European sense) is a technical term, both noun and adjective. Luxembourg is headed by a grand duke; Liechtenstein and Monaco are headed by princes. Before the unifications of Germany and Italy, there were a welter of sovereign or essentially sovereign states ruled by variously-titled sovereigns -- electors (in German, "Kurfürst"), margraves, etc. 3. Romans recognized three orders: patricians, equestrians and plebeians, and earlier, before the foundation of the republic, a fourth: royalty. These notions of the Romans apply to present-day parlance. In essence, the nobility were the landowners. A distinction needs to be made between "nobility" and "peerage". (follow link to "Scottish Feudal Baronies") 4. Emperors of Austria Dr.

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In This Age of Plenty, by Louis Even This 410-page book presents a new conception of finance, of the money system, that would definitely free society from purely financial problems. Its author, Louis Even, sets out the outlines of the Social Credit financial proposals, conceived by the Scottish engineer Clifford Hugh Douglas. Contents Preface (to the first edition in French) This book talks about Social Credit, but it is far from being a general survey of Social Credit. Social Credit is actually a whole orientation of civilization, and deals with its social and political, as well as its economic, aspects.

RMC - Collections > Rare Book & Manuscript Collections > European History & Culture > The Rhaeto-Romance Collection The Rhaeto-Romance Collection, like the Fiske Icelandic Collection and the Dante and Petrarch collections, is a bequest of Daniel Willard Fiske, Cornell's first university librarian and a singularly energetic book collector. The term Rhaeto-Romance describes a group of closely related dialects rather than a coalesced, national language. The dialect caught the interest of Willard Fiske while he was on an expedition to the baths of Tarasp in the Lower Engadine.

Over or Under? The Great Toilet Paper Debate When you really think about it, most of the things we love most about the modern world have been given to us by engineers. Cars, computers, and even awesomely unstable-looking treehouses have all been achievements of that singular science known as engineering. Some feats of engineering, however, though no less ubiquitous than the others, are overlooked because of their serene simplicity and unassuming demeanor. Toilet paper is one of these inventions. Perfectly suited to its one and only task, toilet paper is the unsung hero of daily living. Unfortunately, the brilliant engineers who came up with toilet paper left one problem unsolved: the problem of orientation.

Illuminated Manuscripts Manuscripts from the 8th to the 15th century Before the introduction of printing to Western Europe during the mid-15th century, all books were written by hand. The Latin for hand, ’manus’, and for writing, ’scriptum’, give us the word manuscript. Making a manuscript was slow and demanding: sometimes routinely laborious, sometimes creatively glorious, and always expensive.

Dr. George Merkl - A Short Biography Doctor George Merkl, Ph.D, PhD, was a Nuclear Physicist, Molecular Biologist and President of Life Crystals, Incorporated in El Paso, Texas. Dr. Merkl conducted research for over 30 years in his own research laboratories, resulting in more than 400 U.S. patents and hundreds of international patents on his discoveries and inventions, many of which were immediately classified as top secret by the National Security Agency due to their applicability in defense-critical areas. His achievments include the manufacture of gem quality diamonds by growing them in his laboratory. Dr.

Internet History Sourcebooks Full Text Sources Links to full texts of books available at this and other sites will be listed here. The texts are also integrated within the overall structure of the Sourcebook. This listing is to aid compilers of web guides to online books, etc. The books that tend to have been put online here, or those that have been linked, tend to be those entire books that are often assigned to students in college classes to be read along with the more usual excerpted texts. Contents UFO News Articles Below are highly revealing excerpts of important UFO news articles from the major media suggesting a cover-up. Links are provided to the full news articles for verification. If any link fails to function, read this webpage. These UFO news articles are listed by order of importance. You can also explore the articles listed by order of the date of the news article or by the date posted. By choosing to educate ourselves and to spread the word, we can and will build a brighter future.

EyeWitness To The Middle Ages and Renaissance Life in a Christian Monastery, ca. 585"When he was dead his body was not placed with the bodies of the brethren, but a grave was dug in the dung pit, and his body was flung down into it. . . " Crime and punishment in a medieval monastery: the monastery's Abbott provides insight into the monastic life. The Vikings Discover America, ca. 1000"There was no want of salmon either in the river or in the lake." Five hundred years before Columbus, the Vikings discover a New World. Invasion of England, 1066The Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England described through the images of the 900 year-old Bayeux Tapestry. Anarchy in 12th Century EnglandThe Anglo-Saxon Chronicle paints a sobering picture of life in 12th century England that contrasts strikingly with Hollywood's image of the Middle Ages.

Is There Any Truth Behind the Bucegi Mountain Discovery? In 2009, the book Transylvanian Sunrise was published, causing a stir in the paranormal research community. The book chronicles a “discovery” under the Romanian Sphinx located in the Bucegi Mountains. The book discusses a joint effort between the U.S. and Romanian governments to explore tunnels under the sphinx that lead to rooms that possessed advanced technology. Town Chronicles in the Holy Roman Empire: Legitimacy and Historical Construction – January 10, 2009Posted in: Articles Town Chronicles in the Holy Roman Empire: Legitimacy and Historical Construction By Ernst Reigg Paper given at The Contours of Legitimacy in Central Europe: New Approaches in Graduate Studies (2002) Synopsis: Examines the historiography of the town chronicles in Germany from the Middle Ages to the 18th century, to examine their relationship with the Holy Roman Empire. Introduction: Within the patchwork rug called the Holy Roman Empire legitimacy was a multi-polar problem as the empire was a multi-polar organism.

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