Axle Shafts Design Rear axle construction In cases where the rear suspension is non-independent, the type of axle used is either a dead axle or a live axle. Axle shafts The axle shaft (half shaft) transmits the drive from the differential sun wheel to the rear hub. Operating conditions The total weight of the rear of the vehicle may exert a bending action on the half shaft. During cornering a side force acts upon the road wheel which imposes a bending load and an end thrust becomes a ‘pull’. Stresses The various types may be compared by considering the stresses the shaft has to resist Fig. 1a shows a line sketch of a simple haft which is subjected to: 1- torsional stress due to driving and braking torque. 2- Shear stress due to the weight of the vehicle (Fig. 1b). 3- Bending stress due to the weight of the vehicle (Fig. 1c). 4- Tensile and compressive stress due to cornering forces. Types of axles · Semi-floating · Three-quarter floating · Fully floating. Semi-floating Three-quarter floating where:
Differential Jobsfully floatinglubricant charictaristicsDifferentialthree quater floatingList of automotive light bulb typesLight bulbs for automobiles are made in several standardized series. Bulbs used for headlamps, turn signals and brake lamps may be required to comply with international and national regulations governing the types of lamps used. Other automotive lighting applications such as auxiliary lamps or interior lighting may not be regulated, but common types are used by many automotive manufacturers. International The World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (ECE Regulations) develops and maintains international-consensus UN Regulations on light sources acceptable for use in lamps on vehicles and trailers type-approved for use in countries that recognise the UN Regulations. Filament lamps UN Regulation 37 covers motor vehicle filament lamps. Gas discharge lamps UN Regulation 99 covers gas discharge light sources for use in vehicle headlamps. Germany There is a German national regulation for vehicle bulbs, now superseded by international ECE regulations.
Worm And Wheel Final Drivesemi floating 2Electronic brakeforce distributionElectronic brakeforce distribution (EBD or EBFD) or electronic brakeforce limitation (EBL) is an automobile brake technology that automatically varies the amount of force applied to each of a vehicle's brakes, based on road conditions, speed, loading, etc. Always coupled with anti-lock braking systems, EBD can apply more or less braking pressure to each wheel in order to maximize stopping power whilst maintaining vehicular control. Typically, the front end carries the most weight and EBD distributes less braking pressure to the rear brakes so the rear brakes do not lock up and cause a skid. In some systems, EBD distributes more braking pressure at the rear brakes during initial brake application before the effects of weight transfer become apparent. How ABS works Under heavy braking, vehicle wheels may lock-up due to excessiveness of wheel torques over tire-road friction forces available, caused by too much hydraulic line pressure. How EBD works See also