Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy abduction (Igor Douven) Abelard [Abailard], Peter (Peter King) Abhidharma (Noa Ronkin) abilities (John Maier) Abner of Burgos (Shalom Sadik) Abrabanel, Judah (Aaron Hughes) abstract objects (Gideon Rosen) accidental properties — see essential vs. accidental properties action (George Wilson and Samuel Shpall) action-based theories of perception (Robert Briscoe and Rick Grush) action at a distance — see quantum mechanics: action at a distance in actualism (Christopher Menzel) adaptationism (Steven Hecht Orzack and Patrick Forber) Addams, Jane (Maurice Hamington) Adorno, Theodor W. (Lambert Zuidervaart) advance directives (Agnieszka Jaworska) Aegidius Romanus — see Giles of Rome Aenesidemus — see skepticism: ancient aesthetic, concept of the (James Shelley) aesthetics aesthetics of the everyday (Yuriko Saito) affirmative action (Robert Fullinwider) Africana Philosophy (Lucius T. Outlaw Jr.) B [jump to top] C [jump to top] D [jump to top] Damian, Peter (Toivo J.
Guide to Philosophy on the Internet (Suber) Welcome to my collection of online philosophy resources. If you are stuck in a frame, click here to escape. If you are a frequent visitor, press reload or refresh on occasion to be sure that you are viewing the most recent version of the page, not the version cached on your hard drive from your last visit. I've marked recommended sites with a red star . When the whole file loads, use the search command on your browser to find items by keyword. To register to receive an email announcement whenever this page is revised, see the bottom of this file. If speed is a problem, try one of the mirror sites in Germany (München, single-file version) or Italy (Bari, single-file version), or Italy (Bari, multi-file version). About this guide. I welcome URLs for inclusion, notice of broken links, and suggestions and comments of all kinds. If you're interested in guides like this to disciplines other than philosophy, see my list of lists of them.
Marx/Engels on Historical Materialism Broad Overview: The German Ideology "The first premise of all human history is, of course, the existence of living human individuals. Study Guide Socialism: Utopian and Scientific "The materialist conception of history starts from the proposition that the production of the means to support human life and, next to production, the exchange of things produced, is the basis of all social structure; that in every society that has appeared in history, the manner in which wealth is distributed and society divided into classes or orders is dependent upon what is produced, how it is produced, and how the products are exchanged. Study Guide >> Additional Readings in Overview Particulars in theory and practice: 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (abstracts) Chapter One: "Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past. Study Guide Anti-Dühring (abstracts)
Philosophy Collection Philosophy in Wikipedia Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom". The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. Areas of inquiry Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. Epistemology Epistemology is concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge, such as the relationships between truth, belief, and theories of justification. Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Logic
Hume and Kant The 1700s saw many great thinkers who have left a lasting impact on modern philosophy and science -- and psychology. But there were two who would, between them, define the nature of science, especially psychology. They are, of course, David Hume and Immanuel Kant. David Hume was born April 26, 1711 in Edinburgh, Scotland. His family suggested he try law, and he tried, but found that it -- as he put it -- made him sick. Hume was the ultimate skeptic, convincingly reducing matter, mind, religion, and science to a matter of sense impressions and memories. I will let him speak for himself. All ideas are copies of impressions...it is impossible for us to think of anything which we have not antecedently felt by our senses.... And so...no matter! There are some philosophers (e.g. And no mind! There is no idea in metaphysics more obscure or uncertain than necessary connection between cause and effect. Out with cause and effect! So long, science! In 1752, he wrote Political Discourses. 1.
EpistemeLinks: Philosophy Resources on the Internet Kant: Knowledge Kant: Experience and Reality Analogies of Experience So Kant maintained that we are justified in applying the concepts of the understanding to the world as we know it by making a priori determinations of the nature of any possible experience. In order to see how this works in greater detail, let's concentrate on the concepts of relation, which govern how we understand the world in time. 1. 2. 3. Notice again that these features of nature are not generalized from anything we have already experienced; they are regulative principles that we impose in advance on everything we can experience. Phenomena and Noumena Having seen Kant's transcendental deduction of the categories as pure concepts of the understanding applicable a priori to every possible experience, we might naturally wish to ask the further question whether these regulative principles are really true. According to Kant, it is vital always to distinguish between the distinct realms of phenomena and noumena. The Aim of Metaphysics
Philosophy Free Audio Sort by Titles Per Page 1 - 10 of 476 Titles by Plato Available on: Audio Download | Podcast Plato's most popular dialogue, The Republic, argues for social justice by subjecting the individual to complete state control. by Bertrand Russell Online Video A History of Western Philosophy is a 1945 book by philosopher Bertrand Russell. by Hubert L. Audio Download The course will be organized around various attempts to reinterpret the Judeo/Christian God, and to determine in what sense, if at all, such a God is still a living God. by Michael Sandel Justice is one of the most popular courses in Harvard’s history. by Niccolo Machiavelli Written in 1513 to the Medici family, Machiavelli's work is known primarily for its ruthless advice and shocking lack of morality. One of the most famous works of western civilization, The Apology is Plato's account of the trial of Socrates. The Dhammapada is is a Buddhist scripture, containing 423 verses in 26 categories. by Karl Marx by Will Durant
Marxists Internet Archive Morbleu ! Philosophie et Culture en Majuscules Idealist philosophy:What is Real ? Idealist ontology, philosophy of science, cognition, reality, psychological Now, collective conscious experience, egoless experience, philosophy of mind, mind-brain relations, mind-matter relations, collective consciousness, egolessness, spirituality, shamanism, science and religion, God. Idealist Philosophy: What is Real ? Conscious Experience Seen as Basic to All Ontology. An Overview By Axel Randrup firstname.lastname@example.org International Center for Interdisciplinary Psychiatric Research, CIRIP Written 2000-2003. Content Abstract Introduction Content and Temporal Extension of the Psychological Now The Ontology of Consciousness The Ontology of Nature Including Mind - Brain Relations Individual and Collective Conscious Experience. Collective Conscious Experience Across Time. Egoless Experience. The Ontology of Worlds Comprising Spiritual Experiences Shamanism Religion. Note References Abstract Introduction Content and Temporal Extension of the Psychological Now The Ontology of Consciousness
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