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Karl Popper

Karl Popper
Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS[4] (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British[5] philosopher and professor at the London School of Economics.[6] He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century.[7][8] Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method, in favour of empirical falsification: A theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments. If the outcome of an experiment contradicts the theory, one should refrain from ad hoc manoeuvres that evade the contradiction merely by making it less falsifiable. Personal life[edit] Family and training[edit] Karl Popper was born in Vienna (then in Austria-Hungary) in 1902, to upper middle-class parents. He worked in street construction for a short amount of time, but was unable to cope with the heavy labour. Academic life[edit] Honours and awards[edit] Related:  Take your Pick

George Romney: Braver than Mitt By 1970, Richard Nixon badly wanted to be rid of his Housing and Urban Development secretary, a liberal Republican and former governor of Michigan named George Romney. Romney had a strange dedication to racial integration and had been generally making a hash of the president’s “Southern Strategy” by withholding housing funds from projects that barred black families. But Nixon found it difficult to fire people himself (he preferred to have H.R. Haldeman or John Ehrlichman do it, until he had to fire them), and so he instead got Romney to agree to cease promoting integration in suburbs. The president’s strategy was to convince Romney to go away. Romney, who seemed to have gone into government out of a sincere desire to serve, stayed on. There was a great deal of wrenching irony in this tactic. “I don’t know what the president believes in,” Romney reportedly told a friend after Nixon effectively told him to stop doing what he’d been explicitly appointed to do.

Thomas Kuhn Thomas Samuel Kuhn (/ˈkuːn/; July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian, and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was deeply influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term "paradigm shift", which has since become an English-language staple. Life[edit] Kuhn was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, to Samuel L. Kuhn, an industrial engineer, and Minette Stroock Kuhn. Thomas Kuhn was married twice, first to Kathryn Muhs with whom he had three children, then to Jehane Barton Burns (Jehane R. Kuhn was an agnostic.[4] His family was Jewish on both sides. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions[edit] The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (SSR) was originally printed as an article in the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, published by the logical positivists of the Vienna Circle. Polanyi–Kuhn debate[edit] Thomas Kuhn Paradigm Shift Award[edit] Honors[edit] Bibliography[edit] References[edit]

William James William James (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician. The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States,[2] James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labelled him the "Father of American psychology".[3][4][5] Along with Charles Sanders Peirce and John Dewey, he is considered to be one of the greatest figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism, and is also cited as one of the founders of the functional psychology. He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. Early life[edit] William James was born at the Astor House in New York City. He took up medical studies at The Harvard Medical School in 1864. Career[edit]

Abraham Lincoln, bare-knuckle brawler? You’ve got a new book out, Lincoln’s Battle, the Spielberg movie is hot at the box office — why are we still so fascinated by Lincoln? Stephen Mansfield: I think Lincoln is beloved because he dealt with such massive issues. What other president faced the complete dissolution of the Union? The enslavement of millions? Lincoln seemed like such an underdog. The thing I hope readers take away from my book is this: Lincoln truly suffered in life. How did Lincoln go from being known as the village atheist to not only a man of faith, but the sort of deep faith that people could relate to? In a sense, Lincoln is deeper than his age. Wasn’t Lincoln’s mother some sort of champion brawler? We don’t know some of this for sure. Lincoln became a wrestler too, right? Yes. What key moment in Lincoln’s life caused him to rise above? Well, there’s a real turning point, and it’s not a conversion story, necessarily. What do you mean? There are many, many stories like that.

Willard Van Orman Quine Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) (known to intimates as "Van")[1] was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition. From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement. He filled the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy at Harvard from 1956 to 1978. Biography[edit] According to his autobiography, The Time of My Life (1986), Quine grew up in Akron, Ohio, where he lived with his parents and older brother Robert C. It was through Quine's good offices that Alfred Tarski was invited to attend the September 1939 Unity of Science Congress in Cambridge. Quine had four children by two marriages.[1] Guitarist Robert Quine was his nephew. Political beliefs[edit] Work[edit] Existence and Its contrary[edit] .

The Open Society and Its Enemies The Open Society and Its Enemies is a two-volume work on political philosophy by Karl Popper. Written during World War II, it failed to find a publisher in the United States and was first printed in London by Routledge in 1945. The book was published in Russia in 1992.[1] Popper criticises theories of teleological historicism in which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws, and indicts as totalitarian Plato, Hegel and Marx for relying on historicism to underpin their political philosophies. The work was on the Modern Library Board's 100 Best Nonfiction books of the 20th century.[2] Publication[edit] A veritable who's who of philosophy and the social sciences were involved in its path to publication, as Popper was writing in academic obscurity in New Zealand for the duration of World War II. Synopsis[edit] In The Open Society and Its Enemies, Popper developed a critique of historicism and a defense of the open society, liberal democracy. Legacy[edit] See also[edit]

Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov (Russian: Илья́ Ива́нович Ивано́в, August 1 [O.S. July 20] 1870-March 20, 1932) was a Russian and Soviet biologist who specialized in the field of artificial insemination and the interspecific hybridization of animals. He was involved in controversial attempts to create a human-ape hybrid. Biography[edit] Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov was born in the town of Shchigry, Kursk gubernia, Russia. Around the start of the 20th century, Ilya Ivanov perfected artificial insemination and its practical usage for horse breeding. Human-ape hybridization experiments[edit] The most controversial of Ivanov's studies was his attempt to create a human-ape hybrid. In the 1920s, Ivanov carried out a series of experiments to create a human/nonhuman ape hybrid. Later[edit] In the course of a general political shakeup in the Soviet scientific world, Ivanov and a number of scientists involved in primate research and experiments lost their positions. Orango opera[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

Jürgen Habermas Biography[edit] Habermas was born in Düsseldorf, Rhine Province, in 1929. He was born with a cleft palate and had corrective surgery twice during childhood.[4] Habermas argues that his speech disability made him think differently about the importance of communication and prefer writing over the spoken word as a medium.[5] From 1956 on, he studied philosophy and sociology under the critical theorists Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno at the Goethe University Frankfurt's Institute for Social Research, but because of a rift between the two over his dissertation—Horkheimer had made unacceptable demands for revision—as well as his own belief that the Frankfurt School had become paralyzed with political skepticism and disdain for modern culture[6]—he finished his habilitation in political science at the University of Marburg under the Marxist Wolfgang Abendroth. Habermas then returned to his chair at Frankfurt and the directorship of the Institute for Social Research. Teacher and mentor[edit]

Critical rationalism Critical rationalism is an epistemological philosophy advanced by Karl Popper. Popper wrote about critical rationalism in his works, The Open Society and its Enemies Volume 2, and Conjectures and Refutations. Criticism, not support[edit] Critical rationalists hold that scientific theories and any other claims to knowledge can and should be rationally criticized, and (if they have empirical content) can and should be subjected to tests which may falsify them. However, this contrastive, critical approach to objective knowledge is quite different from more traditional views that also hold knowledge to be objective. Supposed positive evidence (such as the provision of "good reasons" for a claim, or its having been "corroborated" by making successful predictions) actually does nothing to bolster, support, or prove a claim, belief, or theory. In this sense, critical rationalism turns the normal understanding of a traditional rationalist, and a realist, on its head. Not justificationism[edit] 1.

Sokei-an Sokei-an Shigetsu Sasaki (佐々木 指月 (曹渓庵); 1882 – May 17, 1945), born Yeita Sasaki (佐々木 栄多), was a Japanese Rinzai roshi who founded the Buddhist Society of America (now the First Zen Institute of America) in New York City in 1930. Influential in the growth of Zen Buddhism in the United States, Sokei-an was one of the first Japanese masters to live and teach in America. In 1944 he married American Ruth Fuller Everett. Biography[edit] Sokei-an was born in Japan in 1882 as Yeita Sasaki. In 1938 his future wife, Ruth Fuller Everett, began studying under him and received her Buddhist name (Eryu); her daughter, Eleanor, was then the wife of Alan Watts (who also studied under Sokei-an that same year).[8] In 1941 Ruth purchased an apartment at 124 E. 65th Street in New York City, which also served as living quarters for Sokei-an and became the new home for the Buddhist Society of America (opened on December 6). Teaching style[edit] Miscellaneous[edit] Notable students[edit] See also[edit]

John Rawls John Bordley Rawls (/rɔːlz/;[1] February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher and a leading figure in moral and political philosophy. He held the James Bryant Conant University Professorship at Harvard University and the Fulbright Fellowship at Christ Church, Oxford. Rawls received both the Schock Prize for Logic and Philosophy and the National Humanities Medal in 1999, the latter presented by President Bill Clinton, in recognition of how Rawls' work "helped a whole generation of learned Americans revive their faith in democracy itself."[2] Biography[edit] Early life[edit] John Rawls was born in Baltimore, Maryland to William Lee Rawls, "one of the most prominent attorneys in Baltimore,"[3] and Anna Abell Stump Rawls.[6] The second of five sons, tragedy struck Rawls at a young age. Rawls attended school in Baltimore for a short time before transferring to Kent School, an Episcopalian preparatory school in Connecticut. Career[edit] Later life[edit]

Alfred North Whitehead In his early career Whitehead wrote primarily on mathematics, logic, and physics. His most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica (1910–13), which he co-wrote with former student Bertrand Russell. Principia Mathematica is considered one of the twentieth century's most important works in mathematical logic, and placed 23rd in a list of the top 100 English-language nonfiction books of the twentieth century by Modern Library.[44] Whitehead's process philosophy argues that "there is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have consequences for the world around us. Life[edit] Whewell's Court north range at Trinity College, Cambridge. Bertrand Russell in 1907. Toward the end of his time in England, Whitehead turned his attention to philosophy. The Whiteheads spent the rest of their lives in the United States. Mathematics and logic[edit] Principia Mathematica[edit]

Zero Dark Thirty's Maya: CIA operative played by Jessica Chastain was denied raise at agency following Bin Laden raid. Photo by Jonathan Olley/Columbia Pictures Industries. The Washington Post's Greg Miller this morning offers the latest brush strokes in the picture of what we know about the thirtysomething CIA analyst who played a key role in the hunt for Osama Bin Laden. While that operative remains very much undercover, she's nonetheless becoming something of a public figure thanks to Zero Dark Thirty, the much-talked-about new movie from Kathryn Bigelow about the raid that killed the 9/11 mastermind. The part of the story WaPo offers today is what came after the raid, namely what Miller calls the "more problematic script" that the headstrong agent's CIA career has followed since Bin Laden was killed by members of SEAL Team Six. This spring, she was among a handful of employees given the agency’s Distinguished Intelligence Medal, its highest honor except for those recognizing people who have come under direct fire.

Jacques Derrida Jacques Derrida (/ʒɑːk ˈdɛrɨdə/; French: [ʒak dɛʁida]; born Jackie Élie Derrida;[1] July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French philosopher, born in French Algeria. Derrida is best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction. He is one of the major figures associated with post-structuralism and postmodern philosophy.[3][4][5] During his career Derrida published more than 40 books, together with hundreds of essays and public presentations. He had a significant influence upon the humanities and social sciences, including—in addition to philosophy and literature—law[6][7][8] anthropology,[9] historiography,[10] linguistics,[11] sociolinguistics,[12] psychoanalysis, political theory, feminism, and queer studies. Particularly in his later writings, he frequently addressed ethical and political themes present in his work. Life[edit] Derrida was the third of five children. Derrida traveled widely and held a series of visiting and permanent positions.

Absolutely no amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong. Thanx Einstein.�� by ramasysdev Apr 28

The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1972, 3rd edn.) that the nature of scientific method is hypothetico–deductive and not, as is generally believed, inductive. by raviii Apr 28