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Karl Popper

Karl Popper
Karl Raimund Popper CH FBA FRS[4] (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British[5] philosopher and professor at the London School of Economics.[6] He is generally regarded as one of the greatest philosophers of science of the 20th century.[7][8] Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method, in favour of empirical falsification: A theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can and should be scrutinized by decisive experiments. If the outcome of an experiment contradicts the theory, one should refrain from ad hoc manoeuvres that evade the contradiction merely by making it less falsifiable. Personal life[edit] Family and training[edit] Karl Popper was born in Vienna (then in Austria-Hungary) in 1902, to upper middle-class parents. He worked in street construction for a short amount of time, but was unable to cope with the heavy labour. Academic life[edit] Honours and awards[edit]

Giordano Bruno Artigo Pág. 5 Giordano Bruno: O homem, o mundo e o Renascimento Giordano Bruno apresenta uma das teorias filosóficas mais complexas de todos os tempos e é assim tido, inclusive por Giovanne Reale. Escreveu sobre muitas questões, desde a magia até a matemática. Firmou-se como um místico em suas interpretações do mundo, mas sua principal contribuição veio na sua teoria da infinitude do Universo, em que apresenta, também, uma visão teológica panteísta. Para Bruno, o homem jamais poderá conhecer Deus, posto que ele está além da capacidade do pensamento humano. No seu entendimento, Deus está acima da esfera do nosso pensamento, sendo mais relevante chegar a ele pela revelação do que pela inteligência. Observa-se, ainda, que Giordano Bruno faz uma distinção entre príncipio e causa. A resposta para a questão do princípio, o autor encontra não em Aristóteles, como era comum na época, mas nos pré-socráticos, filósofos da natureza por excelência. Distingue ser (todo) de modos de ser (coisas).

Hans Albert Hans Albert Hans Albert (born February 8, 1921) is a German philosopher. Born in Cologne, he lives in Heidelberg. His fields of research are Social Sciences and General Studies of Methods. He is a critical rationalist, giving special attention to rational heuristics. Albert's critical rationalism[edit] Albert held the chair of 'Social Sciences and General Studies of Methods' at the University of Mannheim. He gave evidence for his thesis that there is no field of human activities where one should not be critical. In his view the attitude of criticism is one of the oldest European traditions (going back to the pre-Socratics) in comparison with other less critical traditions. Before his many books were published Hans Albert was already known to a broader audience for his contributions to the positivism dispute answering his opponents of the so called Frankfurt School (school of Theodor W. New insights are not easy to be spread or proliferate. Albert's style of writing and criticizing[edit]

giordano ► Texto de ANTÓNIO MARINHO, talvez no semanário «O Expresso» Por ter adoptado a Teoria de Copérnico, segundo a qual a Terra e os outros planetas giram à volta do Sol, e admitido a infinitude do Universo, além de uma infinidade de mundos, Giordano Bruno foi queimado vivo pela Inquisição. O episódio ocorreu a 17 de Fevereiro de 1600, em Roma Completaram-se na quinta-feira, dia 17, 400 anos sobre a morte de Giordano Bruno, queimado vivo pela Inquisição devido às suas teses filosóficas e científicas. Nascido em Itália, na localidade de Nola (Campânia), em 1548, Giordano Bruno era sobretudo um inconformado e um insatisfeito que percorreu a Europa do seu tempo ensinando em algumas das mais famosas universidades de então, tais como Toulouse, Paris, Oxford, Witemberg e Zurique. Retrato de Giordano Bruno publicado numa edição da Gulbenkian, em Janeiro de 1978 A sua personalidade e as suas doutrinas estiveram sempre envolvidas por uma controvérsia que perdura até aos nossos dias.

Douglas Kellner Douglas Kellner (born 1943) is a "third generation" critical theorist in the tradition of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, or Frankfurt School. Kellner was an early theorist of the field of critical media literacy and has been a leading theorist of media culture generally.[citation needed] In his recent work, he has increasingly argued that media culture has become dominated by the forms of spectacle and mega-spectacle. He also has contributed important studies of alter-globalization processes, and has always been concerned with counter-hegemonic movements and alternative cultural expressions in the name of a more radically democratic society.[1] Kellner has written with a number of authors, including (with Steven Best) an award-winning trilogy of books on postmodern turns in philosophy, the arts, and in science and technology. Education and career[edit] Recent controversies[edit] Political writing[edit] Selected works[edit] Books[edit] Essays and articles[edit] References[edit]

GIORDANO BRUNO CONDENADO PELAS IDÉIAS DE COPÉRNICO « Caiafarsa A MENTIRA:.1594d > Igreja: Na Itália, na Igreja Católica, o padre Giordano Bruno, de filosofia, preso em nome do papa, por apoiar as teorias de Nicolau Copérnico Site Batista: Os acusadores citam a condenação de Giordano Bruno para “comprovar” a contradição Católica, afirmando que este foi condenado por defender as idéias do Padre Copérnico..A VERDADE DOCUMENTAL: Quem tem o mínimo de conhecimento histórico sabe que Giordano Bruno não foi condenado por sua defesa do sistema Copérnico como afirma os mentirosos, nem por sua teoria da pluralidade dos mundos habitados, mas por sua idéias teológicas repletas de erros, este afirmava, por exemplo, que Cristo não era Deus e sim um hábil mágico, que o espírito santo era a alma do mundo e que o Diabo seria salvo. Suas idéias e concepções: “O princípio do mundo infinito obriga Bruno a supor que o princípio do mundo não está fora dele, mas é força que está dentro dele.

Peter McLaren Peter McLaren "McLaren's work is a passionate challenge to all forms of education that limit rather than enhance the project of human emancipation."[1] Peter McLaren (born August 2, 1948) is a Professor in the Division of Urban Schooling, the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles (United States).[2] He is currently Distinguished Fellow in Critical Studies at Chapman University, California. McLaren is married to Yan Wang from Northeast China. He is known as one of the leading architects of critical pedagogy and for his scholarly writings on critical literacy, the sociology of education, cultural studies, critical ethnography, and Marxist theory. Professor McLaren is a faculty member at the Institute of Critical Pedagogy at The Global Center for Advanced Studies and he lectures worldwide on the politics of education. Life[edit] McLaren taught elementary and middle school from 1974-1979. Career[edit] First Phase, 1980-1993

Giordano Bruno Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. Giordano Bruno (Nola, Reino de Nápoles, 15482 — Roma, Campo de Fiori, 17 de fevereiro de 1600) foi um teólogo, filósofo, escritor e frade dominicano italiano [carece de fontes] condenado à morte na fogueira pela Inquisição romana (Congregação da Sacra, Romana e Universal Inquisição do Santo Ofício) por heresia.1 É também referido como Bruno de Nola ou Nolano.3 Notas biográficas[editar | editar código-fonte] Origem e formação[editar | editar código-fonte] Filho do militar Giovanni Bruno e Fraulissa Savolino,4 seu nome de batismo era Filippo Bruno.2 Adotou o nome de Giordano quando ingressou na Ordem Dominicana, aos 15 anos de idade.2 No seminário, estudou Aristóteles e Tomás de Aquino, predominantes na doutrina Católica da época, doutorando-se em Teologia. Suas ideias avançadas, porém, suscitaram suspeitas por parte da hierarquia da Igreja. Iniciou-se, então, o período de peregrinação de sua vida. Ideário[editar | editar código-fonte] Notas Referências

Herbert Marcuse Herbert Marcuse (German: [maʁˈkuːzə]; July 19, 1898 – July 29, 1979) was a German philosopher, sociologist, and political theorist, associated with the Frankfurt School of critical theory. Born in Berlin, Marcuse studied at the universities of Berlin and then at Freiburg, where he received his Ph.D.[2] He was a prominent figure in the Frankfurt-based Institute for Social Research – what later became known as the Frankfurt School. He was married to Sophie Wertheim (1924–1951), Inge Neumann (1955–1972), and Erica Sherover (1976–1979).[3][4][5] Active in the United States after 1934, his intellectual concerns were the dehumanizing effects of capitalism and modern technology. He offers a powerful critique of modern industrial societies and the material and entertainment cultures they manufacture, arguing that they use new forms of social control to dupe the masses into accepting the ways things are.[6] Biography Early life Emigration to the United States World War II Post War Jesuit Fr.

Jean-Paul Sartre His work has also influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, and literary studies, and continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre has also been noted for his open relationship with the prominent feminist theorist Simone de Beauvoir. He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature but refused it, saying that he always declined official honors and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution".[2] Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Jean-Paul Sartre was born in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, and Anne-Marie Schweitzer.[3] His mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer. In 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and later went on to become a noted philosopher, writer, and feminist. World War II[edit] French journalists visit General George C. Cold War politics and anticolonialism[edit]

Paul Goodman (writer) Paul Goodman (/ˈɡʊdmən/; September 9, 1911 – August 2, 1972) was an American novelist, playwright, poet and psychotherapist, although now best known as a social critic, anarchist philosopher, and public intellectual. Though often thought of as a sociologist, he vehemently denied being one in a presentation in the Experimental College at San Francisco State in 1964, and in fact said he could not read sociology because it was too often lifeless. The author of dozens of books including Growing Up Absurd and The Community of Scholars, Goodman was an activist on the pacifist Left in the 1960s and a frequently cited inspiration to the student movement of that decade. Goodman was born in New York City to Barnett and Augusta Goodman, both immigrants. As a child, Goodman freely roamed the streets and public libraries of his native New York City, experiences which later inspired his radical concept of "the educative city". Goodman was a prolific writer of essays, fiction, plays, and poetry.

Félix Guattari Pierre-Félix Guattari (French: [ɡwataʁi] Biography[edit] Clinic of La Borde[edit] Guattari was born in Villeneuve-les-Sablons, a working-class suburb of north-west Paris, France.[1] He trained under (and was analysed by) the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan in the early 1950s. Subsequently, he worked (until his death from a heart attack in 1992) at the experimental psychiatric clinic of La Borde under the direction of Lacan's pupil, the psychiatrist Jean Oury. La Borde was a venue for conversation among many students of philosophy, psychology, ethnology, and social work. One particularly novel orientation developed at La Borde consisted of the suspension of the classical analyst/analysand pair in favour of an open confrontation in group therapy. 1960s to 1970s[edit] From 1955 to 1965, Guattari edited and contributed to La Voie Communiste (Communist Way), a Trotskyist newspaper.[2] He supported anti-colonialist struggles as well as the Italian Autonomists. 1980s to 1990s[edit] Works[edit]

Charles Fourier François Marie Charles Fourier (7 April 1772 – 10 October 1837) was a French philosopher. An influential thinker, some of Fourier's social and moral views, held to be radical in his lifetime, have become mainstream thinking in modern society. Fourier is, for instance, credited with having originated the word feminism in 1837.[1] Biography[edit] Fourier was born in Besançon, France on April 7, 1772.[2] The son of a small businessman, Fourier was more interested in architecture than in his father's trade.[2] He wanted to become an engineer, but the local military engineering School accepted only sons of noblemen.[2] Fourier later said he was grateful that he did not pursue engineering, because it would have consumed too much of his time and taken away from his true desire to help humanity.[3] When his father died in 1781, Fourier received two-fifths of his father's estate, valued at more than 200,000 francs.[4] This inheritance enabled Fourier to travel throughout Europe at his leisure.

Denis Diderot Denis Diderot (French: [dəni didʁo]) (5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment, and is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert. Diderot also contributed to literature, notably with Jacques le fataliste et son maître (Jacques the Fatalist and his Master), which emulated Laurence Sterne in challenging conventions regarding novels and their structure and content,[citation needed] while also examining philosophical ideas about free will. Diderot is also known as the author of the dialogue Le Neveu de Rameau (Rameau's Nephew), upon which many articles and sermons about consumer desire have been based. Biography[edit] Denis Diderot was born in Langres, Champagne, and began his formal education at a Jesuit collège in Langres. Diderot had affairs with the writer Madeleine de Puisieux and with Sophie Volland (1716–1784).

Antonio Gramsci Antonio Gramsci (Italian: [anˈtɔːnjo ˈɡramʃi]; 22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist theoretician and politician. He wrote on political theory, sociology and linguistics. He was a founding member and one-time leader of the Communist Party of Italy and was imprisoned by Benito Mussolini's Fascist regime. Gramsci was one of the most important thinkers of the 20th century. Life[edit] Early life[edit] In 1898 Francesco was convicted of embezzlement and imprisoned, reducing his family to destitution. Gramsci completed secondary school in Cagliari, where he lodged with his elder brother Gennaro, a former soldier whose time on the mainland had made him a militant socialist. Turin[edit] In 1911, Gramsci won a scholarship to study at the University of Turin, sitting the exam at the same time as future cohort Palmiro Togliatti.[7] At Turin, he read literature and took a keen interest in linguistics, which he studied under Matteo Bartoli. In the Communist Party of Italy[edit]

Absolutely no amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; a single experiment can prove me wrong. Thanx Einstein.�� by ramasysdev Apr 28

The Logic of Scientific Discovery (1972, 3rd edn.) that the nature of scientific method is hypothetico–deductive and not, as is generally believed, inductive. by raviii Apr 28

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