Fact Etymology and usage The word fact derives from the Latin factum, and was first used in English with the same meaning: "a thing done or performed", a use that is now obsolete. The common usage of "something that has really occurred or is the case" dates from the middle of the sixteenth century. Fact is sometimes used synonymously with truth, as distinct from opinions, falsehoods, or matters of taste. This use is found in such phrases as, It is a fact that the cup is blue or Matter of fact, and "... not history, nor fact, but imagination." Fact also indicates a matter under discussion deemed to be true or correct, such as to emphasize a point or prove a disputed issue; (e.g., "... the fact of the matter is ..."). Alternatively, fact may also indicate an allegation or stipulation of something that may or may not be a "true fact", (e.g., "the author's facts are not trustworthy"). Fact in philosophy Correspondence and the slingshot argument Compound facts Fact–value distinction
Giordano Bruno Artigo Pág. 5 Giordano Bruno: O homem, o mundo e o Renascimento Giordano Bruno apresenta uma das teorias filosóficas mais complexas de todos os tempos e é assim tido, inclusive por Giovanne Reale. Escreveu sobre muitas questões, desde a magia até a matemática. Firmou-se como um místico em suas interpretações do mundo, mas sua principal contribuição veio na sua teoria da infinitude do Universo, em que apresenta, também, uma visão teológica panteísta. Para Bruno, o homem jamais poderá conhecer Deus, posto que ele está além da capacidade do pensamento humano. No seu entendimento, Deus está acima da esfera do nosso pensamento, sendo mais relevante chegar a ele pela revelação do que pela inteligência. Observa-se, ainda, que Giordano Bruno faz uma distinção entre príncipio e causa. A resposta para a questão do princípio, o autor encontra não em Aristóteles, como era comum na época, mas nos pré-socráticos, filósofos da natureza por excelência. Distingue ser (todo) de modos de ser (coisas).
Hypothetico-deductive model The hypothetico-deductive model or method is a proposed description of scientific method . According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. A test that could and does run contrary to predictions of the hypothesis is taken as a falsification of the hypothesis. Example [ edit ] One example of an algorithmic statement of the hypothetico-deductive method is as follows: [ 1 ] 1 . 2 . 3 . 4 . One possible sequence in this model would be 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . Note that this method can never absolutely verify (prove the truth of) 2 . Discussion [ edit ] Additionally, as pointed out by Carl Hempel (1905–1997), this simple view of the scientific method is incomplete; a conjecture can also incorporate probabilities, e.g., the drug is effective about 70% of the time. [ 5 ] Tests, in this case, must be repeated to substantiate the conjecture (in particular, the probabilities). Citations [ edit ]
giordano ► Texto de ANTÓNIO MARINHO, talvez no semanário «O Expresso» Por ter adoptado a Teoria de Copérnico, segundo a qual a Terra e os outros planetas giram à volta do Sol, e admitido a infinitude do Universo, além de uma infinidade de mundos, Giordano Bruno foi queimado vivo pela Inquisição. O episódio ocorreu a 17 de Fevereiro de 1600, em Roma Completaram-se na quinta-feira, dia 17, 400 anos sobre a morte de Giordano Bruno, queimado vivo pela Inquisição devido às suas teses filosóficas e científicas. Nascido em Itália, na localidade de Nola (Campânia), em 1548, Giordano Bruno era sobretudo um inconformado e um insatisfeito que percorreu a Europa do seu tempo ensinando em algumas das mais famosas universidades de então, tais como Toulouse, Paris, Oxford, Witemberg e Zurique. Retrato de Giordano Bruno publicado numa edição da Gulbenkian, em Janeiro de 1978 A sua personalidade e as suas doutrinas estiveram sempre envolvidas por uma controvérsia que perdura até aos nossos dias.
Cross-validation (statistics) Cross-validation, sometimes called rotation estimation, is a model validation technique for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. It is mainly used in settings where the goal is prediction, and one wants to estimate how accurately a predictive model will perform in practice. In a prediction problem, a model is usually given a dataset of known data on which training is run (training dataset), and a dataset of unknown data (or first seen data) against which the model is tested (testing dataset). The goal of cross validation is to define a dataset to "test" the model in the training phase (i.e., the validation dataset), in order to limit problems like overfitting, give an insight on how the model will generalize to an independent dataset (i.e., an unknown dataset, for instance from a real problem), etc. Linear regression provides a simple illustration of overfitting. LpO cross-validation requires to learn and validate
GIORDANO BRUNO CONDENADO PELAS IDÉIAS DE COPÉRNICO « Caiafarsa A MENTIRA:.1594d > Igreja: Na Itália, na Igreja Católica, o padre Giordano Bruno, de filosofia, preso em nome do papa, por apoiar as teorias de Nicolau Copérnico Site Batista: Os acusadores citam a condenação de Giordano Bruno para “comprovar” a contradição Católica, afirmando que este foi condenado por defender as idéias do Padre Copérnico..A VERDADE DOCUMENTAL: Quem tem o mínimo de conhecimento histórico sabe que Giordano Bruno não foi condenado por sua defesa do sistema Copérnico como afirma os mentirosos, nem por sua teoria da pluralidade dos mundos habitados, mas por sua idéias teológicas repletas de erros, este afirmava, por exemplo, que Cristo não era Deus e sim um hábil mágico, que o espírito santo era a alma do mundo e que o Diabo seria salvo. Suas idéias e concepções: “O princípio do mundo infinito obriga Bruno a supor que o princípio do mundo não está fora dele, mas é força que está dentro dele.
Text mining A typical application is to scan a set of documents written in a natural language and either model the document set for predictive classification purposes or populate a database or search index with the information extracted. Text mining and text analytics The term text analytics describes a set of linguistic, statistical, and machine learning techniques that model and structure the information content of textual sources for business intelligence, exploratory data analysis, research, or investigation. The term is roughly synonymous with text mining; indeed, Ronen Feldman modified a 2000 description of "text mining" in 2004 to describe "text analytics. The term text analytics also describes that application of text analytics to respond to business problems, whether independently or in conjunction with query and analysis of fielded, numerical data. History Text analysis processes Subtasks — components of a larger text-analytics effort — typically include: Software
Giordano Bruno Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. Giordano Bruno (Nola, Reino de Nápoles, 15482 — Roma, Campo de Fiori, 17 de fevereiro de 1600) foi um teólogo, filósofo, escritor e frade dominicano italiano [carece de fontes] condenado à morte na fogueira pela Inquisição romana (Congregação da Sacra, Romana e Universal Inquisição do Santo Ofício) por heresia.1 É também referido como Bruno de Nola ou Nolano.3 Notas biográficas[editar | editar código-fonte] Origem e formação[editar | editar código-fonte] Filho do militar Giovanni Bruno e Fraulissa Savolino,4 seu nome de batismo era Filippo Bruno.2 Adotou o nome de Giordano quando ingressou na Ordem Dominicana, aos 15 anos de idade.2 No seminário, estudou Aristóteles e Tomás de Aquino, predominantes na doutrina Católica da época, doutorando-se em Teologia. Suas ideias avançadas, porém, suscitaram suspeitas por parte da hierarquia da Igreja. Iniciou-se, então, o período de peregrinação de sua vida. Ideário[editar | editar código-fonte] Notas Referências
Algorithm Flow chart of an algorithm (Euclid's algorithm) for calculating the greatest common divisor (g.c.d.) of two numbers a and b in locations named A and B. The algorithm proceeds by successive subtractions in two loops: IF the test B ≥ A yields "yes" (or true) (more accurately the numberb in location B is greater than or equal to the numbera in location A) THEN, the algorithm specifies B ← B − A (meaning the number b − a replaces the old b). Similarly, IF A > B, THEN A ← A − B. The process terminates when (the contents of) B is 0, yielding the g.c.d. in A. (Algorithm derived from Scott 2009:13; symbols and drawing style from Tausworthe 1977). In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm ( i/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ AL-gə-ri-dhəm) is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Informal definition While there is no generally accepted formal definition of "algorithm," an informal definition could be "a set of rules that precisely defines a sequence of operations Formalization
Stroop effect Effect of psychological interference on reaction time Green Red BluePurple Red Purple Mouse Top FaceMonkey Top Monkey Naming the font color of a printed word is an easier and quicker task if word meaning and font color are congruent. If two words are both printed in red, the average time to say "red" in response to the written word "green" is greater than the time to say "red" in response to the written word "mouse". In psychology, the Stroop effect is the delay in reaction time between congruent and incongruent stimuli. The effect has been used to create a psychological test (the Stroop test) that is widely used in clinical practice and investigation. A basic task that demonstrates this effect occurs when there is a mismatch between the name of a color (e.g., "blue", "green", or "red") and the color it is printed on (i.e., the word "red" printed in blue ink instead of red ink). Original experiment Stimulus 1: Purple Brown Red Blue Green Stimulus 2: Brown GreenBlueGreen Neuroanatomy
Competition Competition in sports. A selection of images showing some of the sporting events that are classed as athletics competitions. Consequences Competition can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. Biology and ecology Economics and business Merriam-Webster defines competition in business as "the effort of two or more parties acting independently to secure the business of a third party by offering the most favorable terms". It was described by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations (1776) and later economists as allocating productive resources to their most highly-valued uses. and encouraging efficiency. Experts have also questioned the constructiveness of competition in profitability. Three levels of economic competition have been classified: In addition, companies also compete for financing on the capital markets (equity or debt) in order to generate the necessary cash for their operations. Competition does not necessarily have to be between companies. Law
Benchmarking Benchmarking is the process of comparing one's business processes and performance metrics to industry bests or best practices from other industries. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost. In the process of best practice benchmarking, management identifies the best firms in their industry, or in another industry where similar processes exist, and compares the results and processes of those studied (the "targets") to one's own results and processes. In this way, they learn how well the targets perform and, more importantly, the business processes that explain why these firms are successful. Benchmarking is used to measure performance using a specific indicator (cost per unit of measure, productivity per unit of measure, cycle time of x per unit of measure or defects per unit of measure) resulting in a metric of performance that is then compared to others. Benefits and use Collaborative benchmarking Procedure The 12 stage methodology consists of:
Complexity There is no absolute definition of what complexity means, the only consensus among researchers is that there is no agreement about the specific definition of complexity. However, a characterization of what is complex is possible. Complexity is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways. The study of these complex linkages is the main goal of complex systems theory. In science, there are at this time a number of approaches to characterizing complexity, many of which are reflected in this article. Overview Definitions of complexity often depend on the concept of a "system"—a set of parts or elements that have relationships among them differentiated from relationships with other elements outside the relational regime. Some definitions relate to the algorithmic basis for the expression of a complex phenomenon or model or mathematical expression, as later set out herein. Varied meanings of complexity
Explanatory power Explanatory power is the ability of a hypothesis to effectively explain the subject matter it pertains to. One theory is sometimes said to have more explanatory power than another theory about the same subject matter if it offers greater predictive power. That is, if it offers more details about what we should expect to see, and what we should not. Explanatory power may also suggest that more details of causal relations are provided, or that more facts are accounted for. Overview Deutsch says that the truth consists of detailed and "hard to vary assertions about reality" Physicist David Deutsch offers a criterion for a good explanation that he says may be just as important to scientific progress as learning to reject appeals to authority, and adopting formal empiricism and falsifiability. Deutsch takes examples from Greek mythology. References