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The Limits to Growth

The Limits to Growth
Five variables were examined in the original model. These variables are: world population, industrialization, pollution, food production and resource depletion. The authors intended to explore the possibility of a sustainable feedback pattern that would be achieved by altering growth trends among the five variables under three scenarios. They noted that their projections for the values of the variables in each scenario were predictions "only in the most limited sense of the word," and were only indications of the system's behavioral tendencies.[4] Two of the scenarios saw "overshoot and collapse" of the global system by the mid to latter part of the 21st century, while a third scenario resulted in a "stabilized world. The most recent updated version was published on June 1, 2004 by Chelsea Green Publishing Company and Earthscan under the name Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update. The book continues to generate fervent debate and has been the subject of several subsequent publications. Related:  Earth Charter - The New World Religion

Sustainability Achieving sustainability will enable the Earth to continue supporting human life. In ecology, sustainability is how biological systems remain diverse and productive. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of humans and other organisms. Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability", the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, and continues to be, questioned—in light of environmental degradation, climate change, overconsumption, population growth and societies' pursuit of indefinite economic growth in a closed system.[3][4] Etymology[edit] The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere (tenere, to hold; sub, up). Components[edit] Three pillars of sustainability[edit] Circles of sustainability[edit] History[edit]

Economic growth GDP real growth rates, 1990–1998 and 1990–2006, in selected countries. Economic growth is the increase in the market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP.[1] Of more importance is the growth of the ratio of GDP to population (GDP per capita, which is also called per capita income). An increase in growth caused by more efficient use of inputs is referred to as intensive growth. GDP growth caused only by increases in inputs such as capital, population or territory is called extensive growth.[2] In economics, "economic growth" or "economic growth theory" typically refers to growth of potential output, i.e., production at "full employment". Growth is usually calculated in real terms – i.e., inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. Measuring economic growth[edit] Quality of life[edit] M.

The Ecologist archive: Preface: A Blueprint for Survival. A Blueprint for Survival occupied the entire issue of The Ecologist Vol. 2 No. 1, January 1972, in advance of the world's first Environment Summit: the 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment, in Stockholm. The principal authors were Edward Goldsmith and Robert Allen, with additional help from Michael Allaby, John Davoll, and Sam Lawrence. So great was demand for A Blueprint for Survival that it was republished in book form later that year by Penguin Books, on 14 September 1972. This document has been drawn up by a small team of people, all of whom, in different capacities, are professionally involved in the study of global environmental problems. Four considerations have prompted us to do this: An examination of the relevant information available has impressed upon us the extreme gravity of the global situation today. The Ecologist Edward Goldsmith, Robert Allen, Michael Allaby, John Davoll, Sam Lawrence. We are grateful to

Over-consumption CO2 emission per capita per year per country pre-2006 The theory was coined to augment the discussion of overpopulation, which reflects issues of carrying capacity without taking into account per capita consumption, by which developing nations are evaluated to consume more than their land can support. Green parties and the ecology movement often argue that consumption per person, or ecological footprint, is typically lower in poor than in rich nations. Causes[edit] Planned obsolescence[edit] Planned obsolescence is, by definition: "a method of stimulating consumer demand by designing products that wear out or become outmoded after limited use." Effects[edit] The scale of modern life's overconsumption has enabled an overclass to exist, displaying affluenza and obesity. In the long term these effects can lead to increased conflict over dwindling resources [2] and in the worst case a Malthusian catastrophe. Economic growth[edit] [edit] Counteractions[edit] Overconsumption in the USA[edit]

Our Common Future Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report, from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was published in 1987. Its targets were multilateralism and interdependence of nations in the search for a sustainable development path. The report sought to recapture the spirit of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment - the Stockholm Conference - which had introduced environmental concerns to the formal political development sphere. The document was the culmination of a “900 day” international-exercise which catalogued, analysed, and synthesised: written submissions and expert testimony from “senior government representatives, scientists and experts, research institutes, industrialists, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and the general public” held at public hearings throughout the world. The Brundtland Commission's mandate was to:[1] An oft-quoted definition of sustainable development is defined in the report as:

Blueprint for Survival A Blueprint for Survival was an influential environmentalist text that drew attention to the urgency and magnitude of environmental problems. First published as a special edition of The Ecologist in January 1972, it was later published in book form and went on to sell over 750,000 copies.[1] The Blueprint was signed by over thirty of the leading scientists of the day—including Sir Julian Huxley, Sir Frank Fraser Darling, Sir Peter Medawar, and Sir Peter Scott—but was written by Edward Goldsmith and Robert Allen (with contributions from John Davoll and Sam Lawrence of the Conservation Society, and Michael Allaby[2]) who argued for a radically restructured society in order to prevent what the authors referred to as “the breakdown of society and the irreversible disruption of the life-support systems on this planet”.[3] It recommended that people live in small, decentralised and largely de-industrialised communities. Some of the reasons given for this were that: See also[edit] References[edit]

Birth rates 'must be curbed to win war on global poverty' - World Politics - World Gordon Brown has staked his future premiership on leading the world in tackling global poverty. And the report, by the all-party parliamentary group on population, development and reproductive growth, makes the point that the population surge presents a massive stumbling block for his ambition. Since the 1970s, when coercion was used in India and China, family planning has become a dirty word among environmental and hunger campaigners. The group says the UK will have to take on the religious ideology of the neoconservatives in the White House against contraception. It has put non-governmental organisations outside the US "in an untenable position" and forced them to choose between carrying out their work safeguarding the health and rights of women or losing their funding from the US. The report says there is "overwhelming" evidence that the UN's millennium development goals will be missed if population growth is not curbed. UN goals in jeopardy Reduce Extreme Poverty Gender Equality

On the Ground in Gabon - the Gamba Complex Gabon and its newly created network of 13 national parks is a sanctuary for tropical wildlife, and boasts some of the most majestic scenery in the world. Along Gabon's coast, towards the border of neighbouring Congo Brazzaville, lies the Gamba Complex of protected areas. Undiscovered, and stunningly beautiful. The habitat is a mix of dense tropical rainforests, wide open savannahs, swamps and lagoons bordering deserted ocean beaches. Rich variety of species The Gamba Complex is not only home to elephants, gorillas, chimpanzees, 4 species of marine turtle, manatees, hippos and the like, but is also at the heart of Gabon's main economy: oil. And while oil production declines, pressures on natural resources through logging, hunting and fishing increase. WWF's work in the area WWF has been active in the area since 1992. Gamba Complex - the area

Didgeridoo There are no reliable sources stating the didgeridoo's exact age. Archaeological studies of rock art in Northern Australia suggest that the people of the Kakadu region of the Northern Territory have been using the didgeridoo for less than 1,000 years, based on the dating of paintings on cave walls and shelters from this period.[2] A clear rock painting in Ginga Wardelirrhmeng, on the northern edge of the Arnhem Land plateau, from the freshwater period[3] (that was begun 1500 years ago)[4] shows a didgeridoo player and two songmen participating in an Ubarr Ceremony.[5] Names & etymology[edit] There are numerous names for the instrument among the Aboriginal peoples of northern Australia, none of which closely resemble the word "didgeridoo" (see below). "Didgeridoo" is considered to be an onomatopoetic word of Western invention. There are numerous other, regional names for the didgeridoo. Construction[edit] A wax mouthpiece can soften during play, forming a better seal. Decoration[edit]

Malthusian catastrophe A chart of estimated annual growth rates in world population, 1800–2005. Rates before 1950 are annualized historical estimates from the US Census Bureau. Red = USCB projections to 2025. Work by Thomas Malthus[edit] In 1798, Thomas Malthus wrote: The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. Notwithstanding the apocalyptic image conveyed by this particular paragraph, Malthus himself did not subscribe to the notion that mankind was fated for a "catastrophe" due to population overshooting resources. The passion between the sexes has appeared in every age to be so nearly the same that it may always be considered, in algebraic language, as a given quantity. Neo-Malthusian theory[edit] Wheat yields in developing countries, 1950 to 2004, in kg/ha (baseline 500). Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. Criticism[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit]

Sancai Sancai (Chinese: 三彩; pinyin: sāncǎi; literally "three colours") is a type of decoration on Chinese pottery using three intermingled colors for decoration. Technique[edit] Sancai follows the development of green-glazed pottery dating back to the Han period (25-220 AD).[1] Predecessors to the sancai style can also be seen in some Northern Qi (550-577) ceramic works. Development[edit] The sancai technique dates back to the Tang Dynasty. Earthenware tomb figurine with sancai glaze, 7th-8th century, Tang DynastyForeigner on a camel, in sancai style, Tang Dynasty. Influences[edit] Sancai travelled along the Silk Road, to be later extensively used in Syrian, Cypriot, and then Italian pottery from the 13th to the middle of the 15th century. Syrian three-color ceramic, 13th century.Syrian three-color ceramic, 13th century.Three-color glazed ceramics, Cyprus, 14th century.Italian three-color Vase, Mid-15th century.Italian three-color Bowl, Mid-15th century. References[edit] External links[edit]

Criticisms of globalization Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of the globalization of capitalism. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement. However, other groups are also critical of the policies of globalization. Political scientist and author Claus Leggewie has divided the critics into six groups: leftists, radical leftists, the academic left, reformers from the business world, critics with a religious base and right-winged opponents.[1] Environmental effects[edit] Infectious diseases[edit] Infectious diseases, such as SARS and Ebola, have traveled across the world due to increased world trade and tourism.[2] Invasive organisms[edit] The spread of invasive species has been accelerated by globalization.[2] Social effects[edit] Loss of languages[edit] Acceleration in language death has been attributed to globalization, and is predicted to continue.[3] Economic effects[edit] Increased power of transnational corporations[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

File:Soutra du diamant ouvert.png Tragedy of the commons The tragedy of the commons concept is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology. However the concept, as originally developed, has also received criticism for not taking into account the many other factors operating to enforce or agree on regulation in this scenario. Lloyd's pamphlet[edit] In 1833, the English economist William Forster Lloyd published a pamphlet which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. Garrett Hardin's article[edit] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. [edit] As a metaphor, the tragedy of the commons should not be taken too literally. See also[edit]