Sustainability Achieving sustainability will enable the Earth to continue supporting human life. In ecology, sustainability is how biological systems remain diverse and productive. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of humans and other organisms. Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability", the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, and continues to be, questioned—in light of environmental degradation, climate change, overconsumption, population growth and societies' pursuit of indefinite economic growth in a closed system. Etymology The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere (tenere, to hold; sub, up). Components Three pillars of sustainability Circles of sustainability History
Economic growth GDP real growth rates, 1990–1998 and 1990–2006, in selected countries. Economic growth is the increase in the market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. It is conventionally measured as the percent rate of increase in real gross domestic product, or real GDP. Of more importance is the growth of the ratio of GDP to population (GDP per capita, which is also called per capita income). An increase in growth caused by more efficient use of inputs is referred to as intensive growth. GDP growth caused only by increases in inputs such as capital, population or territory is called extensive growth. In economics, "economic growth" or "economic growth theory" typically refers to growth of potential output, i.e., production at "full employment". Growth is usually calculated in real terms – i.e., inflation-adjusted terms – to eliminate the distorting effect of inflation on the price of goods produced. Measuring economic growth Quality of life M.
Over-consumption CO2 emission per capita per year per country pre-2006 The theory was coined to augment the discussion of overpopulation, which reflects issues of carrying capacity without taking into account per capita consumption, by which developing nations are evaluated to consume more than their land can support. Green parties and the ecology movement often argue that consumption per person, or ecological footprint, is typically lower in poor than in rich nations. Causes Planned obsolescence Planned obsolescence is, by definition: "a method of stimulating consumer demand by designing products that wear out or become outmoded after limited use." Effects The scale of modern life's overconsumption has enabled an overclass to exist, displaying affluenza and obesity. In the long term these effects can lead to increased conflict over dwindling resources  and in the worst case a Malthusian catastrophe. Economic growth  Counteractions Overconsumption in the USA
Our Common Future Our Common Future, also known as the Brundtland Report, from the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) was published in 1987. Its targets were multilateralism and interdependence of nations in the search for a sustainable development path. The report sought to recapture the spirit of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment - the Stockholm Conference - which had introduced environmental concerns to the formal political development sphere. The document was the culmination of a “900 day” international-exercise which catalogued, analysed, and synthesised: written submissions and expert testimony from “senior government representatives, scientists and experts, research institutes, industrialists, representatives of non-governmental organizations, and the general public” held at public hearings throughout the world. The Brundtland Commission's mandate was to: An oft-quoted definition of sustainable development is defined in the report as:
Birth rates 'must be curbed to win war on global poverty' - World Politics - World Gordon Brown has staked his future premiership on leading the world in tackling global poverty. And the report, by the all-party parliamentary group on population, development and reproductive growth, makes the point that the population surge presents a massive stumbling block for his ambition. Since the 1970s, when coercion was used in India and China, family planning has become a dirty word among environmental and hunger campaigners. The group says the UK will have to take on the religious ideology of the neoconservatives in the White House against contraception. It has put non-governmental organisations outside the US "in an untenable position" and forced them to choose between carrying out their work safeguarding the health and rights of women or losing their funding from the US. The report says there is "overwhelming" evidence that the UN's millennium development goals will be missed if population growth is not curbed. UN goals in jeopardy Reduce Extreme Poverty Gender Equality
On the Ground in Gabon - the Gamba Complex Gabon and its newly created network of 13 national parks is a sanctuary for tropical wildlife, and boasts some of the most majestic scenery in the world. Along Gabon's coast, towards the border of neighbouring Congo Brazzaville, lies the Gamba Complex of protected areas. Undiscovered, and stunningly beautiful. The habitat is a mix of dense tropical rainforests, wide open savannahs, swamps and lagoons bordering deserted ocean beaches. Rich variety of species The Gamba Complex is not only home to elephants, gorillas, chimpanzees, 4 species of marine turtle, manatees, hippos and the like, but is also at the heart of Gabon's main economy: oil. And while oil production declines, pressures on natural resources through logging, hunting and fishing increase. WWF's work in the area WWF has been active in the area since 1992. Gamba Complex - the area
Malthusian catastrophe A chart of estimated annual growth rates in world population, 1800–2005. Rates before 1950 are annualized historical estimates from the US Census Bureau. Red = USCB projections to 2025. Work by Thomas Malthus In 1798, Thomas Malthus wrote: The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race. Notwithstanding the apocalyptic image conveyed by this particular paragraph, Malthus himself did not subscribe to the notion that mankind was fated for a "catastrophe" due to population overshooting resources. The passion between the sexes has appeared in every age to be so nearly the same that it may always be considered, in algebraic language, as a given quantity. Neo-Malthusian theory Wheat yields in developing countries, 1950 to 2004, in kg/ha (baseline 500). Growth in food production has been greater than population growth. Criticism See also Notes
Criticisms of globalization Criticism of globalization is skepticism of the claimed benefits of the globalization of capitalism. Many of these views are held by the anti-globalization movement. However, other groups are also critical of the policies of globalization. Political scientist and author Claus Leggewie has divided the critics into six groups: leftists, radical leftists, the academic left, reformers from the business world, critics with a religious base and right-winged opponents. Environmental effects Infectious diseases Infectious diseases, such as SARS and Ebola, have traveled across the world due to increased world trade and tourism. Invasive organisms The spread of invasive species has been accelerated by globalization. Social effects Loss of languages Acceleration in language death has been attributed to globalization, and is predicted to continue. Economic effects Increased power of transnational corporations See also References
Tragedy of the commons The tragedy of the commons concept is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology. However the concept, as originally developed, has also received criticism for not taking into account the many other factors operating to enforce or agree on regulation in this scenario. Lloyd's pamphlet In 1833, the English economist William Forster Lloyd published a pamphlet which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. Garrett Hardin's article The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society.  As a metaphor, the tragedy of the commons should not be taken too literally. See also
List of countries by sex ratio Map indicating the human sex ratio by country. Sex ratio by country for total population. Red represents more women, blue more men than the world average of 1.01 males/female. Sex ratio by country for population aged below 15. Red represents more women, blue more men than the world average of 1.06 males/female. Sex ratio by country for population aged above 65. The human sex ratio is the number of males for each female in a population. Methodology The table presents data from The World Factbook (2012), except when otherwise indicated. For example, The World Factbook in 2001 reported Switzerland's sex ratio at birth as 1.05, while Switzerland's Federal Office of Statistics in 2011 reported Switzerland's sex ratio at birth as 1.07 per its birth records census data. Similar differences between estimates by "The World Factbook" and census numbers from birth records are known for Sweden, Norway, Ireland, India and Japan. Countries References
NVSS - Mortality Data Mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) are a fundamental source of demographic, geographic, and cause-of-death information. This is one of the few sources of health-related data that are comparable for small geographic areas and are available for a long time period in the United States. The data are also used to present the characteristics of those dying in the United States, to determine life expectancy, and to compare mortality trends with other countries. Standard forms for the collection of the data and model procedures for the uniform registration of the events are developed and recommended for nationwide use through cooperative activities of the jurisdictions and NCHS. Material is available to assist persons in completing the death certificate. NCHS shares the costs incurred by the States in providing vital statistics data for national use.
Surveys and Data Collection Systems Homepage Some NCHS data systems and surveys are ongoing annual systems while others are conducted periodically. There are four major data collection programs at NCHS: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is NCHS' most in-depth and logistically complex survey, operating out of mobile examination centers that travel to randomly selected sites throughout the country to assess the health and nutritional status of Americans. The National Health Care Surveys provide information about the organizations and providers that supply health care, the services they render, and the patients they serve. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) provides information on the health status of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population through confidential interviews conducted in households by Census Bureau interviewers. In addition to its major data collection programs, NCHS fulfills its mission by conducting targeted surveys and augmenting survey data where possible.
Data Access - National Death Index 2011 Deaths are now available About the NDI Learn more about how the NDI matching service operates. NDI Matching Criteria The NDI program will permit a match to be listed if any 1 of 7 conditions are satisfied. NDI Matching Criteria [PDF - 117 KB] NDI Retrieval Report See a sample of how the NDI lists possible death record matches for a particular study subject. NDI Retrieval Report [PDF - 64 KB] NDI Application Form This form must be submitted and approved before a researcher is permitted to submit records for an NDI match. NDI Application Form [PDF - 2 MB] Criteria to be Applied in Approving NDI Applications [PDF - 92 KB]This document is presented here simply to give applicants an idea of how their applications will be reviewed. NDI User Fees Fees are based on the number of records submitted. NDI Users Guide The NDI Users Guide NDI Related Bibliographies Contact NDI Staff Please send us an email at firstname.lastname@example.org to submit any requests and questions you may have concerning the NDI.
Data Access - Vital Statistics Online This page is a portal to the online data dissemination activities of the Division of Vital Statistics, including both interactive online data access tools and downloadable public use data files. Downloadable Data Files Public use Birth, Period Linked Birth - Infant Death, Birth Cohort Linked Birth - Infant Death, Mortality Multiple Cause, and Fetal Death data files are available for independent research and analyses. Birth Data Files Period Linked Birth-Infant Death Data Files Birth Cohort Linked Birth - Infant Death Data Files Mortality Multiple Cause Files User's Guide NOTE: A corrected 2009 U.S. file was posted on April 5, 2012. Fetal Death Data Files Notice of Error in the 2003 and 2004 Fetal Death Data Files and Reports * Between 2002 and 2003 the uncompressed file size increased greatly. or WinRAR Data Access Tools A collection of vital statistics products including tables, data files, and reports that allow users to access and examine vital statistics and population data interactively.