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Libertarianism

Libertarianism
Many countries throughout the world have libertarian parties (see list of libertarian political parties). Etymology[edit] The 17 August 1860 edition of Le Libertaire: Journal du Mouvement Social, a libertarian communist publication in New York City. Libertarian as an advocate or defender of liberty, especially in the political and social spheres, was used in the London Packet on 12 February 1796: "Lately marched out of the Prison at Bristol, 450 of the French Libertarians."[22] The word was used also in a political sense in 1802, in a short piece critiquing a poem by "the author of Gebir": The author's Latin verses, which are rather more intelligible than his English, mark him for a furious Libertarian (if we may coin such a term) and a zealous admirer of France, and her liberty, under Bonaparte; such liberty! Since the resurgence of neoliberalism in the 1970s, free-market libertarianism has spread beyond North America via think tanks and political parties,[36][37]. Philosophy[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libertarianism

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Liberalism Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.[1] Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas such as free and fair elections, civil rights, freedom of the press, freedom of religion, free trade, and private property.[2][3][4][5][6] Etymology and definition[edit] Words such as liberal, liberty, libertarian, and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free".[13] One of the first recorded instances of the word liberal occurs in 1375, when it was used to describe the liberal arts in the context of an education desirable for a free-born man.[13] The word's early connection with the classical education of a medieval university soon gave way to a proliferation of different denotations and connotations.

Socialism Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy,[1][2] as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.[3][4] "Social ownership" may refer to cooperative enterprises, common ownership, state ownership, citizen ownership of equity, or any combination of these.[5] There are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them.[6] They differ in the type of social ownership they advocate, the degree to which they rely on markets or planning, how management is to be organised within productive institutions, and the role of the state in constructing socialism.[7] The socialist political movement includes a diverse array of political philosophies. Core dichotomies within the socialist movement include the distinction between reformism and revolutionary socialism and between state socialism and libertarian socialism.

Ayn Rand - philosopher of the Koch Brothers Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews,[6] and academia generally ignored or rejected her philosophy, though academic interest has increased in recent decades.[7][8][9] The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both to the public and in academic settings.[10] She has been a significant influence among libertarians and American conservatives.[11] Life[edit] Early life[edit] Rand was born Alisa Zinov'yevna Rosenbaum (Russian: Али́са Зиновьевна Розенбаум) on February 2, 1905, to a Russian Jewish bourgeois[12] family living in Saint Petersburg. She was the eldest of the three daughters of Zinovy Zakharovich Rosenbaum and his wife, Anna Borisovna (née Kaplan), largely non-observant Jews. The subsequent October Revolution and the rule of the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin disrupted the life the family had previously enjoyed.

Liberal From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Liberal may refer to: Politics[edit] The Institute for Humane Studies The libertarian or "classical liberal" perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by "as much liberty as possible" and "as little government as necessary." These ideas lead to new questions: What's possible? What's necessary? What are the practical implications and the unsolved problems? Below are a number of different takes on the libertarian political perspective from which you can deepen your understanding; also be sure to check out the videos in the sidebar. According to The Machinery of Freedom by David Friedman, Open Court Publishing Company, 1973.

Hope Hope is an optimistic attitude of mind based on an expectation of positive outcomes related to events and circumstances in one's life or the world at large.[1] As a verb, its definitions include: "expect with confidence" and "to cherish a desire with anticipation".[2] In psychology[edit] Dr. Barbara L. Fredrickson argues that hope comes into its own when crisis looms, opening us to new creative possibilities.[4] Frederickson argues that with great need comes an unusually wide range of ideas, as well as such positive emotions as happiness and joy, courage, and empowerment, drawn from four different areas of one’s self: from a cognitive, psychological, social, or physical perspective.[5] Hopeful people are "like the little engine that could, [because] they keep telling themselves "I think I can, I think I can".[6] Such positive thinking bears fruit when based on a realistic sense of optimism, not on a naive "false hope".[7]

Objectivism (Ayn Rand) Objectivism is a philosophical system that originated as the personal philosophy of Russian-born American writer Ayn Rand (1905–1982).[1] First developed in her novels and polemical essays,[2] it was later given more formal structure by her designated intellectual heir,[3] philosopher Leonard Peikoff, who characterizes it as a "closed system" that is not subject to change.[4] Academia has generally ignored or rejected her philosophy, but it has been a significant influence among libertarians and American conservatives.[5] The Objectivist movement, which Rand founded, attempts to spread her ideas to the public and in academic settings.[6] Rand originally expressed her philosophical ideas in her novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged, and other works.

Night-watchman state Advocacy of a night-watchman state is known as minarchism. Minarchists argue that the state has no right to use its monopoly on the use of force to interfere with free transactions between people, and see the state's sole responsibility as ensuring that transactions between private individuals are free. As such, minarchists generally believe in a laissez-faire approach to the economy. The rationale for this belief may be economic prosperity, moral limitations on the use of state force, or both. Military simulation Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. Many professional analysts object to the term wargames as this is generally taken to be referring to the civilian hobby, thus the preference for the term simulation. Simulations exist in many different forms, with varying degrees of realism. In recent times, the scope of simulations has widened to include not only military but also political and social factors, which are seen as inextricably entwined in a realistic warfare model. Whilst many governments make use of simulation, both individually and collaboratively, little is known about it outside professional circles. Yet modelling is often the means by which governments test and refine their military and political policies.

» Congress Finally Decides NSA Surveillance Violates the Law Alex Jones “America has no functioning democracy at this moment,” says Jimmy Carter Kurt Nimmo Infowars.com July 18, 2013 Congress has finally decided that massive, unprecedented and unwarranted surveillance of the American people conducted by the National Security Agency is against the law. Members of the Senate Judiciary Committee, which has broad jurisdiction over matters related to federal criminal law, arrived at the conclusion months after the American people reached a similar conclusion. Optimism Berlin Wall Monument (West view) – the west side of the Wall is covered with graffiti that reflects the hope and optimism post-1989 The word is originally derived from the Latin optimum, meaning "best." Being optimistic, in the typical sense of the word, ultimately means one expects the best possible outcome from any given situation. This is usually referred to in psychology as dispositional optimism.

Noam Chomsky: Why America and Israel Are the Greatest Threats to Peace September 3, 2012 | Like this article? Join our email list: Stay up to date with the latest headlines via email. It is not easy to escape from one’s skin, to see the world differently from the way it is presented to us day after day. But it is useful to try.

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