Snygg and Combs Dr. C. George Boeree Sometimes, a theory fails to gain the attention it deserves because it is too simple, too clear, too practical. The phenomenal field First, "all behavior, without exception, is completely determined by and pertinent to the phenomenal field of the behaving organism." And so, if we wish to understand and predict people's behavior, we need to get at their phenomenal field. And then you are set to understand and predict the person's behavior, since, as the quote above says, all their behavior will follow as a reasonable, meaningful, purposeful response to the person's phenomenal field. One motive Which brings us to Snygg and Combs' understanding of motivation: "The basic need of everyone is to preserve and enhance the phenomenal self, and the characteristics of all parts of the field are governed by this need." Note that it is the phenomenal self we try to maintain and enhance. And note that we are talking not only about maintaining, but about enhancing the self. Readings
Maslow’s Pyramid Gets a Makeover | Smart Journalism. Real Solutions. Miller-McCune. Abraham Maslow’s Pyramid of Needs is one of the iconic images of psychology. The simple diagram, first introduced in the 1940s, spells out the underlying motivations that drive our day-to-day behavior and points the way to a more meaningful life. It is elegant, approachable and uplifting. But is it also out of date? That’s the argument of a team of evolutionary psychologists led by Douglas Kenrick of Arizona State University. In the latest issue of the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science, they propose a revised pyramid, one informed by recent research defining our deep biological drives. Their new formulation is intellectually stimulating, but emotionally deflating. The new pyramid is based on the premise that our strongest and most fundamental impulse, which shapes our day-to-day desires on an unconscious level, is to survive long enough to pass our genes to the next generation. In other words, aside from our powerful brains, we’re pretty much like every other living creature.
Personality & Consciousness - - Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality by Dagmar Pescitelli Since the study of personality began, personality theories have offered a wide variety of explanations for behavior and what constitutes the person. This essay offers a closer look at the humanistic personality theory of Carl Rogers. To examine this theory more closely, a summary of the key features follows, with subsequent exploration of Rogers' view of self, his view of the human condition and his rationale for improvement of this condition. Actualizing Tendency Rogers (1959) maintains that the human "organism" has an underlying "actualizing tendency", which aims to develop all capacities in ways that maintain or enhance the organism and move it toward autonomy. Self The human organism's "phenomenal field" includes all experiences available at a given moment, both conscious and unconscious (Rogers, 1959). Self-Actualizing Tendency A distinctly psychological form of the actualizing tendency related to this "self" is the "self-actualizing tendency". References
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Carl Rogers Dr. C. George Boeree Biography Carl Rogers was born January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago, the fourth of six children. When Carl was 12, his family moved to a farm about 30 miles west of Chicago, and it was here that he was to spend his adolescence. He went on to the University of Wisconsin as an agriculture major. study for the ministry. After graduation, he married Helen Elliot (against his parents’ wishes), moved to New York City, and began attending the Union Theological Seminary, a famous liberal religious institution. Religion’s loss was, of course, psychology’s gain: Rogers switched to the clinical psychology program of Columbia University, and received his Ph.D. in 1931. He was offered a full professorship at Ohio State in 1940. In 1957, he returned to teach at his alma mater, the University of Wisconsisn. Theory Roger’s theory is a clinical one, based on years of experience dealing with his clients. Details Incongruity Defenses The fully-functioning person 1. 2.
Maslow Self Actualization - unlearn. "Self Actualization is the intrinsic growth of what is already in the organism, or more accurately, of what the organism is." Abraham Maslow Maslow studied healthy people, most psychologists study sick people. The characteristics listed here are the results of 20 years of study of people who had the "full use and exploitation of talents, capacities, potentialities, etc.." Self-actualization implies the attainment of the basic needs of physiological, safety/security, love/belongingness, and self-esteem. Maslow's Basic Principles: The normal personality is characterized by unity, integration, consistency, and coherence. Realistic Realistically oriented, SA persons have a more efficient perception of reality, they have comfortable relations with it. Acceptance Accept themselves, others and the natural world the way they are. Spontaneity, Simplicity, Naturalness Spontaneous in their inner life, thoughts and impulses, they are unhampered by convention. Problem Centering Peak experiences Creativity
Empathy Empathy is the capacity to understand what another person is experiencing from within the other person's frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's shoes. Etymology The English word is derived from the Ancient Greek word ἐμπάθεια (empatheia), "physical affection, passion, partiality" which comes from ἐν (en), "in, at" and πάθος (pathos), "passion" or "suffering". The term was adapted by Hermann Lotze and Robert Vischer to create the German word Einfühlung ("feeling into"), which was translated by Edward B. Titchener into the English term empathy. Alexithymia (the word comes from the Ancient Greek words λέξις (lexis, "diction", "word") and θυμός (thumos, "soul, as the seat of emotion, feeling, and thought") modified by an alpha-privative, literally meaning "without words for emotions"), is a term to describe a state of deficiency in understanding, processing, or describing emotions in oneself. Definition Applications Types
Memory Tips and Test Taking--Study Skills Guide Knowing More & Remembering it Longer Remembering Strategies Select Select what you want to remember. Ask the teacher Examine your class notes Read the text assignments Study the handouts Remember Choose your techniques that will help you remember. Visualize Associate Apply Repeat Use mnemonic devices Review, Read, Recite, Rewrite Use these techniques to keep what you want to remember in your memory. Using Mnemonic Devices to Remember Information Rhyme. Using Repetition to Remember Information You have probably used repetition many times without realizing it. Four Ways to Forget Disuse. Taking Objective Tests If you are taking an objective test (multiple-choice, true/false, or comparable type), you will probably achieve your best results by following this procedure: Read an item through quickly, with high concentration, and answer on the basis of your first impression. Essay Tests In taking a test where you are to write answers in your own words, observe these guidelines:
Ludwig Binswanger Dr. C. George Boeree Woe's me, woe's me! The earth bears grain, But I Am unfruitful, Am discarded shell, Cracked, unusable, Worthless husk. At seventeen, her poetry begins to take a curious turn. When she is twenty, she takes a trip to Sicily. For a short while, she again buries herself in work and comes out of her depression. When her parents interfere with her engagement to a student, she goes into a tailspin, and comes home from a resort emaciated and sick. At twenty-eight, she marries her cousin in the hopes that marriage will help her get rid of her "fixed idea." She begins to use massive quantities of laxatives. At this point, she goes to first one, then another, psychiatrist. Because she continues to try to kill herself, she and her husband are given a serious choice: She can be committed to a "closed ward," where she could be expected to deteriorate, or she can be released. At this point, she feels much better, because she knows what she needs to do. Biography Theory Dasein