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Constructive Alignment - and why it is important to the learning process

Constructive Alignment - and why it is important to the learning process
What is Constructive Alignment? Constructive Alignment, a term coined by John Biggs (Biggs, 1999) is one of the most influential ideas in higher education. It is the underpinning concept behind the current requirements for programme specification, declarations of Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) and assessment criteria, and the use of criterion based assessment. There are two parts to constructive alignment: Students construct meaning from what they do to learn. The basic premise of the whole system is that the curriculum is designed so that the learning activities and assessment tasks are aligned with the learning outcomes that are intended in the course. Figure 1. Alignment is about getting students to take responsibility for their own learning, and establishing trust between student and teacher. Achieving Constructive Alignment Figure 2. If we are taking a single component of a programme, we can 'Constructively Align' that course by tackling the following steps: Further Reading Source

Bloom's Taxonomy The Teacher's Quick Guide To Digital Scavenger Hunts If you’ve got a smartphone or a tablet in your classroom, you’re ready for the adventure to begin! By adventure I mean, of course, the world of active learning through digital scavenger hunts. In this hunt, students are tasked with finding a particular physical object, person, or place and have to use technology to track it down. Note: an ‘online scavenger hunt’ usually implies that you’re hunting around online and not physically with classmates. The Simple Goal So now that you’re all ready to start your very first scavenger hunt, let’s figure out what the goals are. Finding The Technology Like the movie National Treasure, students will need a lot of ingenuity and tools to help them uncover the mysteries you’ve laid out before them. In an effort to get your scavenger hunt jump-started, here are a few useful tech tools that might be of use. SCVNGR – A useful free app that lets you create your very own digital scavenger hunts, start to finish. Finding An Objective A Quick Note

can-we-teach-digital-natives-digital-literacy.pdf Toward a common definition of "flipped learning" - Casting Out Nines We’ve seen a significant ramping up of interest in – and exposure to – the flipped/inverted classroom over the last few years, and it’s been nice to see an uptick in the amount of research being done into its effectiveness. But one thing that’s been lacking has been a consensus on what the flipped classroom actually is. If a professor assigns readings to do before class and then holds discussions in class, is that “the flipped classroom”? I’ve said in the past that it is not (necessarily), but that’s just me. Now, however, a group of educators and others interested in flipped learning are proposing a common definition of flipped learning, and it’s pretty interesting. Their definition of flipped learning goes like this: Note first that the authors are not defining what the flipped classroom is but rather what flipped learning is. So, what does flipped learning involve that distinguishes it from merely flipping a classroom? What are your thoughts on this document and definition?

Selecting Technologies | UNSW Teaching Staff Gateway This page helps you choose among various technologies (not just LMSs) using two approaches: examples of learning outcomes, the kinds of learning activities that could achieve those outcomes, and how those activities could be supported by various learning technologies examples of the tools you may be interested in using and the types of activities and learning outcomes that are likely to be relevant. Table 1: Sample learning outcomes, rationales and activities The following table provides examples of learning outcomes, the kinds of learning activities that promote those outcomes, and how the activities could be supported by learning technologies. Table 2: Tools related to activities, and their contribution to learning outcomes The following table provides examples of the tools you may be interested in using and looks at the types of activities and learning outcomes that are likely to be relevant. See also on this section of the website:

The Use of Web Instructional Tools By Online Instructors (Study) Note: This article was originally published in The Technology Source ( as: Lucio Teles "The Use of Web Instructional Tools By Online Instructors" The Technology Source, May/June 2002. Available online at The article is reprinted here with permission of the publisher. In studies comparing instructional tools and how they support online teaching, educators have stressed the importance of tools that support specific tasks, and thus allow more flexible teaching, facilitate access to resources and peers, and promote collaborative learning (Britain & Liber, 1999; Harasim, 1999; Bonk, 2001). To investigate how online instructors use instructional tools designed for the Web, we conducted a study with a group of 32 online instructors to address the following questions: (1) What tools are most commonly used by online instructors? Questionnaire respondents Each of the 32 respondents teaches one online course. Results References

Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives One of the most widely used ways of organizing levels of expertise is according to Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. (Bloom et al., 1994; Gronlund, 1991; Krathwohl et al., 1956.) Bloom's Taxonomy (Tables 1-3) uses a multi-tiered scale to express the level of expertise required to achieve each measurable student outcome. Organizing measurable student outcomes in this way will allow us to select appropriate classroom assessment techniques for the course. There are three taxonomies. The course goal in Figure 2--"student understands proper dental hygiene"--is an example of a knowledge-based goal. To determine the level of expertise required for each measurable student outcome, first decide which of these three broad categories (knowledge-based, skills-based, and affective) the corresponding course goal belongs to. Multiple-choice tests also rarely provide information about achievement of skills-based goals. Attachment: Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives [PDF, 67 KB]

Why educators can't live without social media From student recruitment to alumni relations, social media has a place at every step of the student journey, says Eric Stoller. Institutions and educators ignore it at their peril. Communication is at the core of the human experience. But, while social media provides myriad conduits for interaction, learning, and communication, it requires nuance, experimentation, and intrepidity. Digital capabilities The importance of technology competency has been increasing for both staff and administration. Enhancing the digital capabilities of educators is just as important as expanding the digital literacy of students. In order to increase the digital capabilities of educators, the number one factor is time. Getting digital isn't difficult once time has been taken, apps have been downloaded, and competency has been amplified. Digital experimentation Once an educator has committed to becoming more savvy with social media, it can be difficult to know where to start. Student engagement Student experience

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Broadening the Circle of Critical Pedagogy | E. Wayne Ross Ellsworth, E. (1989). Why doesnÕt this feel empowering? Working through the repressive myths of critical pedagogy. Harvard Educational Review, 59 (3), 297Ð324. Politics, philosophy, culture: Interviews and other writings 1977Ð1984 . Pedagogy of the oppressed . Education for critical consciousness. New York, NY: Continuum. Language Arts, 62 (1), 15Ð21. Neoliberalism and education reform (pp. 177Ð215). Marxism against postmodernism in educational theory . Teach your own . Freedom and beyond . What do I do Monday? Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook. Che Guevara, Paulo Freire, and the pedagogy of revolution .

A New Pedagogy is Emerging... and Online Learning is a Key Contributing Factor | In all the discussion about learning management systems, open educational resources (OERs), massive open online courses (MOOCs), and the benefits and challenges of online learning, perhaps the most important issues concern how technology is changing the way we teach and - more importantly - the way students learn. For want of a better term, we call this “pedagogy.” What is clear is that major changes in the way we teach post-secondary students are being triggered by online learning and the new technologies that increase flexibility in, and access to, post-secondary education. In looking at what these pedagogical changes are and their implications for students, faculty, staff, and institutions, we consider: What drives the development of this new pedagogy? New Demands of a Knowledge-Based Society There are several separate factors at work here. Lastly, it means developing students with the skills to manage their own learning throughout life, so they can continue to learn after graduation.