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Internal Time: The Science of Chronotypes, Social Jet Lag, and Why You’re So Tired by Maria Popova Debunking the social stigma around late risers, or what Einstein has to do with teens’ risk for smoking. “Six hours’ sleep for a man, seven for a woman, and eight for a fool,” Napoleon famously prescribed. In fact, each of us possesses a different chronotype — an internal timing type best defined by your midpoint of sleep, or midsleep, which you can calculate by dividing your average sleep duration by two and adding the resulting number to your average bedtime on free days, meaning days when your sleep and waking times are not dictated by the demands of your work or school schedule. The distribution of midsleep in Central Europe. Roenneberg traces the evolutionary roots of different sleep cycles and argues that while earlier chronotypes might have had a social advantage in agrarian and industrial societies, today’s world of time-shift work and constant connectivity has invalidated such advantages but left behind the social stigma around later chronotypes. (Thanks, Jalees.)

10 Reasons Why Cormac McCarthy Is A Badass Cormac McCarthy is one of our greatest living American novelists. Author of Blood Meridian, All the Pretty Horses, No Country for Old Men, and The Road (which won the Pulitzer Prize), McCarthy is a poetic storyteller whose challenging novels explore themes of violence, good and evil, and human survival. Although he’s definitely not everyone’s taste (several of my friends positively loathe him), I personally think the guy is a literary badass. Here are 10 reasons why I do. 1. McCarthy isn’t afraid of delving into the dark side of America. 2. The dead lay awash in the shallows like the victims of some disaster at sea and they were strewn along the salt foreshore in a havoc of blood and entrails. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. You know what the date on this coin is? But McCarthy’s supreme achievement in this regard is Judge Holden from Blood Meridian, whose monologue on war might be one of the most terrifying—and terrifyingly logical—meditations about the will-to-power I’ve ever read: 8. 9. 10.

Raising funding as a first-time founder I’ve been fortunate enough to meet with some outstanding first-time entrepreneurs on a few different days during this week. In almost every case I can really feel the passion and determination they have, and I know that if they will just continue there is every chance that eventually they will be very successful. One interesting topic which came up on a couple of different occasions was timing of raising funding as a first time founder. I’ve had entrepreneurs often talk to me with just an idea or a very early prototype with no traction and tell me that they want to raise funding. We closed our $450K seed round for Buffer at the end of last year, and joining the dots looking back I can see that a number of things came together which enabled us to raise the round. Times during a startup at which you can raise funding What I’ve learned from talking with some very experienced and highly respected successful serial entrepreneurs is that there are only really two good times to raise funding.

Famous Advice on Writing: The Collected Wisdom of Great Writers By Maria Popova By popular demand, I’ve put together a periodically updated reading list of all the famous advice on writing presented here over the years, featuring words of wisdom from such masters of the craft as Kurt Vonnegut, Susan Sontag, Henry Miller, Stephen King, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Susan Orlean, Ernest Hemingway, Zadie Smith, and more. Please enjoy. Jennifer Egan on Writing, the Trap of Approval, and the Most Important Discipline for Aspiring Writers “You can only write regularly if you’re willing to write badly… Accept bad writing as a way of priming the pump, a warm-up exercise that allows you to write well.”

Spectral Signatures of Reorganised Brain Networks in Disorders of Consciousness Abstract Theoretical advances in the science of consciousness have proposed that it is concomitant with balanced cortical integration and differentiation, enabled by efficient networks of information transfer across multiple scales. Here, we apply graph theory to compare key signatures of such networks in high-density electroencephalographic data from 32 patients with chronic disorders of consciousness, against normative data from healthy controls. Based on connectivity within canonical frequency bands, we found that patient networks had reduced local and global efficiency, and fewer hubs in the alpha band. We devised a novel topographical metric, termed modular span, which showed that the alpha network modules in patients were also spatially circumscribed, lacking the structured long-distance interactions commonly observed in the healthy controls. Author Summary What are the neural signatures of consciousness? Figures Copyright: © 2014 Chennu et al. Introduction Results Spectral Power

Pixar's 22 Rules of Storytelling An Airbnb for student notes? Cengage creates digital marketplace for classroom study guides What would college students pay to get their hands on the notes of straight-A classmates? Boston textbook publisher Cengage Learning aims to find out by launching an online marketplace where students can sell lecture notes, exam study guides, and even video tutorials to their peers. Continue reading below Billed by Cengage as “the Airbnb of education,” the marketplace is the product of a new partnership between a traditional publisher trying to reinvent itself and a Boston technology startup called Flashnotes, which already has raised more than $6 million in venture funding for its Web business that allows students at more than 900 universities to buy and sell study materials. “Flashnotes popped up in our research as we were thinking about new digital offerings, and we found thousands of students using the site,” said Cengage chief executive Michael Hansen. Yet note-taking for profit has many in academia worried about blurring the line between collaborating and cheating.

Why Pulitizer Prize-Winner Donna Tartt Is My Role Model Tartt's author photo=the coolest. I wanted to throw a parade when I found out that Donna Tartt won this year’s Pulitzer Prize for fiction for her novel The Goldfinch. I know parades are usually only for, like, Thanksgiving and the Fourth of July, but if we were going to organize a national holiday around a living author, I’d vote for Tartt. I’ve been the biggest fan of Tartt’s ever since I ferociously ate her first novel, The Secret History. She’s a big-time role model of mine and in honor of her winning the fanciest and most important American literary prize you can win, I think it’s time to talk about why she should be a role model for us all. 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.)

Brainflight Home James O'Barr James O'Barr (born January 1, 1960) is an American graphic artist, best known as the creator of the comic book series The Crow.[1] Personal life[edit] O'Barr, an orphan, was raised in the foster care system.[2] He studied Renaissance sculpture, live models and photographic still lifes. In the 1990s O'Barr was affiliated with the experimental metal band Trust Obey, which was signed briefly to Trent Reznor's Nothing label before the band was dropped. As of the mid-2000s, O'Barr resides in Dallas with his daughter.[3] The Crow[edit] O'Barr's own hope that his project would result in a personal catharsis went unfulfilled, he told an interviewer in 1994, saying, "[A]s I drew each page, it made me more self-destructive, if anything....There is pure anger on each page".[6] The Crow has sold more than 750,000 copies worldwide.[7] Acclaim[edit] O'Barr was the second American to be awarded the "Storyteller Award" by the International Comic Festival held annually in Angoulême, France. Sundown[edit]

8 Surprising Ways Music Affects the Brain I’m a big fan of music, and use it a lot when working, but I had no idea about how it really affects our brains and bodies. Since music is such a big part of our lives, I thought it would be interesting and useful to have a look at some of the ways we react to it without even realizing. “Without music, life would be a mistake” – Friedrich Nietzsche Of course, music affects many different areas of the brain, as you can see in the image below, so we’re only scratching the surface with this post, but let’s jump in. Share stories like this to your social media followers when they’re most likely to click, favorite, and reply! 1. We can usually pick if a piece of music is particularly happy or sad, but this isn’t just a subjective idea that comes from how it makes us feel. Even short pieces of happy or sad music can affect us. 2. We all like to pump up the tunes when we’re powering through our to-do lists, right? It turns out that a moderate noise level is the sweet spot for creativity. 3. 4.