Geograph Britain & Ireland Mineral Properties, Uses and Descriptions Diamond Diopside Dolomite Enstatite Epidote Fluorite Fuchsite Galena Garnet Glauconite Gold Graphite Gypsum Rock and Mineral Prospecting Primitive Technology and Native Arts Continued from Page 1 Rock and Mineral Prospecting Any long-term survival training should include techniques for mining and collecting ores and other useful minerals. A mineral is composed of either a single element (like gold) or compound of elements (like sodium chlorine - aka table salt). As a rule, minerals have a solid, crystalline form. Rocks are created initially by magma (below the surface) or lava flowing above the surface of the earth. Igneous - born directly from volcanic output, like granite and basalt Metamorphic - existing rocks that were reshaped after extreme pressure and heat, like slate Sedimentary - rocks composed of layers of clays, silts, fossils and other sediments eroded and washed away from mountains, like limestone and shale Minerals large enough to be visible to the naked eye were produced (in most cases)from magma that solidified below the Earth's surface. Rock Charts, Photos and Identification Sulfur Mineral Identification
How to Assess Soil Composition The health of garden plants depends on the soil's composition — the proper balance of mineral pieces, organic matter, air, and water. Knowing the type of soil you have can help you choose techniques to enhance its good qualities. The best garden soil should have proper balance of minerals, water, organic matter, and air. The relative amounts of clay, silt, and sand particles determine your soil texture: Clay particles are microscopic and flat. Silt particles are more angular and larger than clay but still microscopic. Determine the type of soil you have. For most plants, the ideal mixture is approximately 40 percent sand, 40 percent silt, and 20 percent clay. Clay soils are naturally fertile, but the individual particles are so small that they pack tightly, leaving little room for water and air. Unfortunately, except by trucking in huge amounts of soil, you have no way to change your soil's texture. Many factors affect soil structure, but the most important ones include the following:
Collecting Rocks by Rachel M. Barker Rocks Tell the Story of the Earth The Earth is made of rock, from the tallest mountains to the floor of the deepest ocean. Thousands of different types of rocks and minerals have been found on Earth. Rocks are continually changing. Types of Rocks Geologists classify rocks in three groups, according to the major Earth processes that formed them. Igneous rocks are formed from melted rock that has cooled and solidified. Sedimentary rocks are formed at the surface of the Earth, either in water or on land. Sometimes sedimentary and igneous rocks are subjected to pressures so intense or heat so high that they are completely changed. Rock-forming and rock-destroying processes have been active for billions of years. Starting a Collection A good rock collection consists of selected, representative, properly labeled specimens. Identifying Rocks Many books about geology explain the identification and classification of rocks and describe the underlying geologic principles.
Common Misconceptions About Rocks and Minerals — Rocks and Minerals Although the research base for geologic misconceptions is not as extensive as that of other disciplines within earth and space science, it is clear that students and teachers alike hold a wide range of incorrect ideas about rocks, minerals, and the rock cycle. To promote accurate scientific instruction, it is important that teachers are cognizant of their own understanding and seek to continually improve their content knowledge. Formative assessment can provide a great deal of insight into student thinking before, during, and after instruction. Geologic Misconceptions Geologic misconceptions can take many forms – the language used to define and describe specimens, relevant properties for classification, the rock cycle, and geologic time. Communication Breakdown A major source of geologic misconceptions is the discrepancy between the use of geologic terms in everyday language versus scientific communication. Other words, such as mineral and crystal, are also misused in everyday language.
Geology and Ecology of Colorado Springs natural wonder | Garden of the Gods Garden of the Gods has been many things: a tropical haven; an inland sea; a field of sand dunes; and, even a vast swampy floodplain. Dinosaurs once grazed on the ferns and other tropical plants. Sea serpents swam in shallow waters and mammoths trudged through deep snow in May. The rocks reveal secrets of ancient environments to those who know their language. A billion years ago, molten rock cooled to create Pikes Peak granite and the Ancestral Rockies. About 65 million years ago, mountains rose and tipped the rocks that today we see today vertical and beyond. Garden of the Gods is located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountain’s eastern Front Range. The plains are dominated by drought-tolerant grasses; the foothills have shrubs and scrubby trees; and the middle elevation, the montane, exhibits increasingly thick forests and lush meadows. The Garden of the Gods rests in the foothills - a zone of transition.
The Life Cycle of a Mineral Deposit—A Teacher’s Guide for Hands-On Mineral Education Activities This teacher's guide defines what a mineral deposit is and how a mineral deposit is identified and measured, how the mineral resources are extracted, and how the mining site is reclaimed; how minerals and mineral resources are processed; and how we use mineral resources in our every day lives. Included are 10 activitybased learning exercises that educate students on basic geologic concepts; the processes of finding, identifying, and extracting the resources from a mineral deposit; and the uses of minerals. The guide is intended for K through 12 Earth science teachers and students and is designed to meet the National Science Content Standards as defined by the National Research Council (1996). To assist in the understanding of some of the geology and mineral terms, see the Glossary (appendix 1) and Minerals and Their Uses (appendix 2).
Roderick Murchison Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet KCB DCL FRS FRSE FLS PRGS PBA MRIA (22 February 1792 – 22 October 1871) was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system. Early life and work After eight years of service Murchison left the army, and married Charlotte Hugonin (1788–1869), the only daughter of General Hugonin, of Nursted House, Hampshire. Murchison and his wife spent two years in mainland Europe, particularly in Italy. Sir Roderick Impey Murchison posing with cane, not dated Silurian system Artist's impression of Silurian fish In 1831 he went to the border of England and Wales, to attempt to discover whether the greywacke rocks underlying the Old Red Sandstone could be grouped into a definite order of succession. The establishment of the Silurian system was followed by that of the Devonian system, an investigation in which Murchison assisted, both in the south-west of England and in the Rhineland. Scotland Later life
Rock Key The Rock Identification Key - by Don PeckRock Key Table of Contents What Are Rocks? Rocks are what the crust of the earth is made of. They are the mountains and the bottom of the ocean. They are everywhere on earth, but often buried under soil. [ Return to Rock Key Table of Contents ] What Minerals Form Rocks? Scotland's geological foundations - Scottish Natural Heritage The five geologically distinct foundation blocks which make up Scotland were once separate by hundreds of kilometres. The two most northerly founding blocks the Northwest sea-board and the Northern Highlands appear to have their most ancient foundations in common but are otherwise very different and must have been located far apart at one time. Similarly rocks of the Grampian Highlands are thought to be underlain by rocks comparable to those of the Northern Highlands; but the two areas must have been widely separated for much of their history. The two most southerly foundations blocks the Central Belt and the Southern Uplands - are both products of the continental drift and continental collisions which brought Scotlands foundations together, and also connected Scotland to England. The four major faults which divide Scotland's foundation blocks are (from north to south): the Moine Thrust, the Great Glen Fault, the Highland Boundary Fault, and the Southern Uplands Fault. Northwest Sea-board
50 Really Cool Online Tools for Science Teachers A 21st-century education revolves around the Internet for everything from collaboration, tools, lessons, and even earning degrees online. If you are looking for ways to integrate online learning into your science class or science degree programs, then take a look at these cool online tools that are just perfect for both teachers and students. Science Tools to Use with Students These tools offer opportunities for learning about climate, cells, the human body, nature, and more. ChemiCool. Share this periodic table with your class for an easy to use tool with information on each of the specific elements.GPS Activities and Lesson Plans. AP Tools Whether you are setting up a new AP curriculum or are just looking for additional material to use with your AP science students, these tools will help. Advanced Placement Biology. Websites and Resources for Science Teachers These websites are chock full of amazing resources and tools for science teachers. Discovery Education. Calculators Online Games