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Scientists discover double meaning in genetic code

Scientists discover double meaning in genetic code
Scientists have discovered a second code hiding within DNA. This second code contains information that changes how scientists read the instructions contained in DNA and interpret mutations to make sense of health and disease. High resolutionClick to expand Genome scientist Dr. John Stamatoyannopoulos led a team that discovered a second code hidden in DNA. A research team led by Dr. Read the research paper. The work is part of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements Project, also known as ENCODE. Since the genetic code was deciphered in the 1960s, scientists have assumed that it was used exclusively to write information about proteins. “For over 40 years we have assumed that DNA changes affecting the genetic code solely impact how proteins are made,” said Stamatoyannopoulos. The genetic code uses a 64-letter alphabet called codons. In addition to Stamatoyannopoulos, the research team included Andrew B. Stephanie H. Tagged with: DNA, ENCODE, genome Related:  Organic chemistryGenetics

Choose Reliable Acetylene Gas Plant Manufacturer for Uncommon Plant Are you searching acetylene gas plant manufacturer? If your answer is positive, you are advised to explore the web instead meeting people here and there. There are a number of manufacturers available on the web, but choose an authentic one. Acetylene gas is a colorless gas and is widely used as a fuel and a chemical building block. Known acetylene gas plant manufacturers also offer excellent customer support and warranty/guarantee services. ENCODE: the rough guide to the human genome Back in 2001, the Human Genome Project gave us a nigh-complete readout of our DNA. Somehow, those As, Gs, Cs, and Ts contained the full instructions for making one of us, but they were hardly a simple blueprint or recipe book. The genome was there, but we had little idea about how it was used, controlled or organised, much less how it led to a living, breathing human. That gap has just got a little smaller. For years, we’ve known that only 1.5 percent of the genome actually contains instructions for making proteins, the molecular workhorses of our cells. It contains docking sites where proteins can stick and switch genes on or off. According to ENCODE’s analysis, 80 percent of the genome has a “biochemical function”. And what’s in the remaining 20 percent? That the genome is complex will come as no surprise to scientists, but ENCODE does two fresh things: it catalogues the DNA elements for scientists to pore over; and it reveals just how many there are. Where will it lead us?

How the Federal Reserve and Bank of England Are Fueling Massive Global Inequality “Following World War II, the U.S. dollar was adopted as the world's reserve currency against the wishes of the pre-eminent economist John Maynard Keynes," Joel Benjamin tells me, "cementing the economic and political power of the U.S. Federal Reserve." Benjamin works as the local authority manager for the U.K. campaign Move Your Money and is investigating how much public money authorities lost in the financial crisis. Founded in early 2012, Move Your Money — which has parallel groups like this oneoperating in the U.S. — has helped over 2 million people in the U.K. transfer their finances from unethical too-big-to-fail banks to smaller, safer institutions. The Federal Reserve holds a significant responsibility for the 2008 global crash, Benjamin explains. “The Fed is staffed by insiders from within the banking industry, and this determines its direction. A core aspect of the Positive Money campaign is to analyze and explain how money is created.

Sperm RNA carries marks of trauma tiripero/iStock/Thinkstock Mice exposed to stress have male offspring that show depressive behaviour across three generations. Trauma is insidious. It not only increases a person’s risk for psychiatric disorders, but can also spill over into the next generation. People who were traumatized during the Khmer Rouge genocide in Cambodia tended to have children with depression and anxiety, for example, and children of Australian veterans of the Vietnam War have higher rates of suicide than the general population. Trauma’s impact comes partly from social factors, such as its influence on how parents interact with their children. The study is notable for showing that sperm responds to the environment, says Stephen Krawetz, a geneticist at Wayne State University School of Medicine in Detroit, Michigan, who studies microRNAs in human sperm. “Dad is having a much larger role … than just delivering his genome.”

Organic chemistry Structure of the organic methane molecule, the simplest hydrocarbon compound Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.[1][2] Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials.[3] Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.

An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome : Nature Since 2007, ENCODE has developed methods and performed a large number of sequence-based studies to map functional elements across the human genome3. The elements mapped (and approaches used) include RNA transcribed regions (RNA-seq, CAGE, RNA-PET and manual annotation), protein-coding regions (mass spectrometry), transcription-factor-binding sites (ChIP-seq and DNase-seq), chromatin structure (DNase-seq, FAIRE-seq, histone ChIP-seq and MNase-seq), and DNA methylation sites (RRBS assay) (Box 1 lists methods and abbreviations; Supplementary Table 1, section P, details production statistics)3. To compare and integrate results across the different laboratories, data production efforts focused on two selected sets of cell lines, designated ‘tier 1’ and ‘tier 2’ (Box 1). Box 1: ENCODE abbreviations Integration methodology Transcribed and protein-coding regions In addition, we annotated 8,801 automatically derived small RNAs and 9,640 manually curated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) loci17.

Major biological discovery…inside the Chernobyl reactor?? | Doug's Darkworld The abandoned town of Pripyat, the Chernobyl reactor in the background. There has been an exciting new biological discovery inside the tomb of the Chernobyl reactor. Like out of some B-grade sci fi movie, a robot sent into the reactor discovered a thick coat of black slime growing on the walls. Since it is highly radioactive in there, scientists didn’t expect to find anything living, let alone thriving. The robot was instructed to obtain samples of the slime, which it did, and upon examination…the slime was even more amazing than was thought at first glance. This slime, a collection of several fungi actually, was more than just surviving in a radioactive environment, it was actually using gamma radiation as a food source. Aside from its novelty value, this discovery leads to some interesting speculation and potential research. Possibly this could also be used to create plants or mushrooms that could grow in space, serving as a food source for space travellers. Like this: Like Loading...

Fractal Globules in DNA : Researchers have discovered how the DNA is packed into our cells in such a way that the roughly 2 meters of DNA in each cell doesn’t tangle, and is easily accessible when it’s needed to make proteins. And the key is: Fractal Geometry! ‘…Researchers found that the genome has a highly organized structure. Fractal folding keeps DNA organized in a cell's nucleus, despite the tight pack. Read more details at Science News. Parts of the Cell - Cells Alive! For life all cells have basic needs. Cells have diverged in their structure and function to accommodate these survival requirements. Here are some KEY TERMS to help you think, explore and search for similarities and significant differences that have become the characteristics of eukaryote (animal, plant) and prokaryotic (bacteria) cells. Examples might be searching: eukaryote prokaryote reproduction or animal plant cell energy. Reproduction / cell division Energy trapping, storage and consumption Form / shape / structure Cell specialization Compartmentalization of cell functions Communication within and beyond the cell Cell / organism survival

Fighting about ENCODE and junk A red junk at Tsim Sha Tsui Alfonso Jimenez and Flickr On Wednesday, a handful of journals, including this one, released more than 30 papers describing results from the second phase of ENCODE: a consortium-driven project tasked with building the ‘ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements’, a manual of sorts that defines and describes all the functional bits of the genome. Many reactions to the slew of papers, their web and iPad app presentations and the news coverage that accompanied the release were favourable. But several critics have challenged some of the most prominently reported claims in the papers, the way their publication was handled and the indelicate use of the word ‘junk’ on some material promoting the research. First up was a scientific critique that the authors had engaged in hyperbole. It’s a big number, to be sure. The paper does drill down somewhat into what the authors mean by functional elements. It is an old argument, but it’s not clear that it is a dead argument.

A Beginner's Guide to Constructing the Universe by Michael S. Schneider As a youngster schooled in the US during the 1950’s Sputnik era I was exposed to the sciences, including NASA rocket launches, facts about the moon and planets, kitchen chemistry, supermarket encyclopedias and Mr. Wizard on television, and became very interested in all kinds of scientific wonders, with a passion for electricity and magnetism, chemistry sets, Erector sets, model rocketry, the microscope and Ripley’s Believe It Or Not books. However, I wasn’t an exceptional math student. Mathematics was mostly presented as the memorization of rules and boring paper drill, but I kept up. Yet in my mid-teens I became earnestly interested in the geometry of nature and began lifelong research into the subject, not suspecting everywhere it would lead. Absorbed in my research concerning the shapes of nature I decided to major in mathematics at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn to learn this language so that I wouldn’t be intimidated by any mathematics I encountered.

DNA Double Take Noah Berger for The New York Times DNA sequencing elements displayed on a monitor. But scientists are discovering that — to a surprising degree — we contain genetic multitudes. Not long ago, researchers had thought it was rare for the cells in a single healthy person to differ genetically in a significant way. “There have been whispers in the matrix about this for years, even decades, but only in a very hypothetical sense,” said Alexander Urban, a geneticist at Stanford University. But a series of recent papers by Dr. Dr. Scientists are finding links from multiple genomes to certain rare diseases, and now they’re beginning to investigate genetic variations to shed light on more common disorders. Science’s changing view is also raising questions about how forensic scientists should use DNA evidence to identify people. Human Blueprint When an egg and sperm combine their DNA, the genome they produce contains all the necessary information for building a new human. Everywhere You Look