Narcissisme Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Le narcissisme est le fondement de la confiance en soi. Lorsqu'il est défaillant, le terme peut désigner l'importance excessive accordée à l'image de soi. Le dictionnaire commun le définit comme « contemplation de soi ou attention exclusive portée à soi. » Chez Rousseau[modifier | modifier le code] L’Amour de soi est passion primitive, innée. Chez Freud[modifier | modifier le code] Paul Näcke (1851-1913), psychiatre et criminologue Allemand a intégré le concept de narcissisme à la psychologie clinique en 1899 pour définir une forme de perversion : il désignait originellement un comportement par lequel un individu traite son corps comme un objet sexuel : il le contemple en y prenant un plaisir sexuel, le caresse jusqu’à parvenir à la « satisfaction » complète ». Mythologie[modifier | modifier le code] Société moderne[modifier | modifier le code] Classifications psychiatriques[modifier | modifier le code] Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code]
Dialectical behavior therapy Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a therapy designed to help people change patterns of behavior that are not effective, such as self-harm, suicidal thinking and substance abuse. This approach works towards helping people increase their emotional and cognitive regulation by learning about the triggers that lead to reactive states and helping to assess which coping skills to apply in the sequence of events, thoughts, feelings and behaviors that lead to the undesired behavior. DBT assumes that people are doing the best that they can, but either are lacking the skills or are influenced by positive or negative reinforcement that interfere with one’s functioning. DBT is a modified form of cognitive-behavioral therapy that was originally [timeframe?] developed by Marsha M. Linehan, a psychology researcher at the University of Washington, to treat people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and chronically suicidal individuals. Overview Four modules Mindfulness Observe
Self-esteem History The identification of self-esteem as a distinct psychological construct is thought to have its origins in the work of William James (1892). James identified multiple dimensions of the self, with two levels of hierarchy: processes of knowing (called the 'I-self') and the resulting knowledge about the self (the `Me-self'). Observation and storage by the I-self create three types of knowledge, which collectively account for the Me-self, according to James. These are the material self, social self, and spiritual self. In the mid-1960s, sociologist Morris Rosenberg defined self-esteem as a feeling of self-worth and developed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), which became the most-widely used scale to measure self-esteem in the social sciences. Effect on public policy The task force created committees in many California counties and compiled a committee of scholars to review the available literature on self-esteem. Theories Measurement Shame
Focus — Ayn Rand Lexicon In any hour and issue of his life, man is free to think or to evade that effort. Thinking requires a state of full, focused awareness. The act of focusing one’s consciousness is volitional. Man can focus his mind to a full, active, purposefully directed awareness of reality—or he can unfocus it and let himself drift in a semiconscious daze, merely reacting to any chance stimulus of the immediate moment, at the mercy of his undirected sensory-perceptual mechanism and of any random, associational connections it might happen to make. When man unfocuses his mind, he may be said to be conscious in a subhuman sense of the word, since he experiences sensations and perceptions. Psychologically, the choice “to think or not” is the choice “to focus or not.” “Focus” designates a quality of one’s mental state, a quality of active alertness. “Full awareness” does not mean omniscience. The process of focus is not the same as the process of thought; it is the precondition of thought . . . .
Codependency Development and scope of concept Historically, the concept of codependence "comes directly out of Alcoholics Anonymous, part of a dawning realization that the problem was not solely the addict, but also the family and friends who constitute a network for the alcoholic." It was subsequently broadened to cover the way "that the codependent person is fixated on another person for approval, sustenance, and so on." As such, the concept overlaps with, but developed in the main independently from, the older psychoanalytic concept of the 'passive dependent personality' ... attaching himself to a stronger personality Some would retain the stricter, narrower dictionary definition of codependency, which requires one person to be physically or psychologically addicted, such as to heroin, and the second person to be psychologically dependent on that behavior. Patterns and characteristics Narcissism Alan Rappoport identifies codependents of narcissists as "co-narcissists
Fierté Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : fierté, sur le Wiktionnaire La fierté est un sentiment qui fait suite à un succès après la conduite d'un projet, d'une action, ayant exigé des efforts pour surmonter des difficultés . Ce sentiment est légitimé par trois critères : - l’engagement personnel dans l'action et/ou le projet à mener - la présence d'épreuves à surmonter - le succès. Ce sentiment est confondu à tort avec l'orgueil ou la vanité qui sont des sentiments qui ne reposent sur aucune légitimité autre que celle d'exister. Portail de la psychologie
Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Hierarchy Physiological needs Safety needs Safety and Security needs include:
Egocentrism Egocentrism is the inability to differentiate between self and other. More specifically, it is the inability to untangle subjective schemas from objective reality; an inability to understand or assume any perspective other than their own. Egocentrism and absolutism differ in the sense that an egotist's opinion must always allow everything to center around themselves, while an absolutist can form an opinion that does not center themselves, yet believes their idea and opinion is non contest. Although egocentric behaviors are less prominent in adulthood, the existence of some forms of egocentrism in adulthood indicates that overcoming egocentrism may be a lifelong development that never achieves completion. Therefore, egocentrism is found across the life span: in infancy  early childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. It contributes to the human cognitive development by helping children develop theory of mind and self-identity formation. See also
Volition (psychology) Most modern conceptions of volition address it as a process of conscious action control which becomes automatized (e.g. see Heckhausen and Kuhl; Gollwitzer; Boekaerts and Corno). Willpower and volition are colloquial and scientific terms (respectively) for the same process. When a person makes up his or her mind to do a thing, that state is termed 'immanent volition'. When we put forth any particular act of choice, that act is called an emanant, executive, or imperative volition. When an immanent or settled state of choice controls or governs a series of actions, that state is termed predominant volition. Subordinate volitions are particular acts of choice which carry into effect the object sought for by the governing or predominant volition. According to Gary Kielhofner's "Model of Human Occupation", volition is one of the three sub-systems that act on human behavior. Boekaerts, M.; Corno, L. (2005). Corno, L. Deimann, M.; Bastiaens, T. (2010). Kielhofner, Gary (2008).
Dependent personality disorder Dependent personality disorder (DPD), formerly known as asthenic personality disorder, is a personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive psychological dependence on other people. This personality disorder is a long-term (chronic) condition in which people depend on others to meet their emotional and physical needs, with only a minority achieving normal levels of independence. The difference between a 'dependent personality' and a 'dependent personality disorder' is somewhat subjective, which makes diagnosis sensitive to cultural influences such as gender role expectations. Characteristics View of others Individuals with DPD see other people as much more capable to shoulder life's responsibilities, to navigate a complex world, and to deal with the competitions of life. Other people appear powerful, competent, and capable of providing a sense of security and support to individuals with DPD. Self-image Relationships Comparison with other PDs General:
Pride Pride is sometimes viewed as excessive or as a vice, sometimes as proper or as a virtue. While some philosophers such as Aristotle (and George Bernard Shaw) consider pride a profound virtue, some world religions consider it a sin, such as is expressed in Proverbs 11:2 of the Old Testament. In Christianity, pride is one of the Seven Deadly Sins. According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, proud comes from late Old English prut, probably from Old French prud "brave, valiant" (11th century) (which became preux in French), from Late Latin term prodis "useful", which is compared with the Latin prodesse "be of use". The sense of "having a high opinion of oneself", not in French, may reflect the Anglo-Saxons' opinion of the Norman knights who called themselves "proud", like the French knights preux. Philosophical views Ancient Greek philosophy He concludes then that By contrast, Aristotle defined hubris as follows: Psychological views As an emotion Dr.