Diabetes mellitus Type 1 DM results from the pancreas' failure to produce enough insulin. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes". The cause is unknown.Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop. This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes". The primary cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.Gestational diabetes, is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood sugar level. Prevention and treatment involve a healthy diet, physical exercise, not using tobacco and being a normal body weight. Signs and symptoms Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes Diabetic emergencies Low blood sugar is common in persons with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Sarcoma Classification Tissue Sarcomas are given a number of different names based on the type of tissue that they most closely resemble. Grade In addition to being named based on the tissue of origin, sarcomas are also assigned a grade (low, intermediate, or high) based on the presence and frequency of certain cellular and subcellular characteristics associated with malignant biological behavior. Types (ICD-O codes are provided, where available, along with the relevant edition.) Treatment Liposarcoma treatment consists of surgical resection, with chemotherapy not being used outside of the investigative setting. Epidemiology Sarcomas are quite rare with only 15,000 new cases per year in the United States. Sarcomas therefore represent about one percent of the 1.5 million new cancer diagnoses in that country each year. References External links Sarcoma at DMOZ
Cancer cell A diagram illustrating the distinction between cancer stem cell targeted and conventional cancer therapies Cancer cells are cells that grow and divide at an unregulated, quickened pace. Although cancer cells can be quite common in a person they are only malignant when the other cells (particularly natural killer cells) fail to recognize and/or destroy them. In the past a common belief was that cancer cells failed to be recognized and destroyed because of a weakness in the immune system. However more recent research has shown that the failure to recognize cancer cells is caused by the lack of particular co-stimulated molecules that aid in the way antigens react with lymphocytes. Causes All cancers begin in cells, the body's basic unit of life. The body is made up of many types of cells. Sometimes this process of controlled production of cells goes wrong. Pathology Discovery Telomerase Cancer stem cells and drug resistance See also References
Is Cancer Contagious? A healthy person cannot “catch” cancer from someone who has it. There is no evidence that close contact or things like sex, kissing, touching, sharing meals, or breathing the same air can spread cancer from one person to another. Cancer cells from one person are generally unable to live in the body of another healthy person. A healthy person’s immune system recognizes foreign cells and destroys them, including cancer cells from another person. Cancer transfer after organ transplant There have been a few cases in which organ transplants from people with cancer have been able to cause cancer in the person who got the organ. Still, recent studies have shown that cancer is more common in people who get solid-organ transplants than in people who don’t – even when the donor doesn’t have cancer. Cancer transfer during pregnancy Even if a woman has cancer during pregnancy, the cancer rarely affects the fetus directly. Germs can affect cancer risk. Viruses Bacteria Bacteria can also promote cancer.
Aspartame controversy The artificial sweetener aspartame has been the subject of several controversies since its initial approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1974. The FDA approval of aspartame was highly contested, with critics alleging that the quality of the initial research supporting its safety was inadequate and flawed and that conflicts of interest marred the 1981 approval of aspartame. In 1987, the U.S. Potential health risks have been examined and dismissed by numerous scientific research projects. Origins Around the same time, a Usenet post was widely circulated under the pen name "Nancy Markle", creating the basis for a misleading and unverifiable hoax chain letter that was spread through the Internet. Numerous websites have spread the email's claims, which were not backed by scientific evidence, about safety issues purportedly linked to aspartame, including Gulf War Syndrome and lupus. US FDA approval U.S. Ralph G. Ramazzini studies
My Medical Choice MY MOTHER fought cancer for almost a decade and died at 56. She held out long enough to meet the first of her grandchildren and to hold them in her arms. But my other children will never have the chance to know her and experience how loving and gracious she was. We often speak of “Mommy’s mommy,” and I find myself trying to explain the illness that took her away from us. My doctors estimated that I had an 87 percent risk of breast cancer and a 50 percent risk of ovarian cancer, although the risk is different in the case of each woman. Only a fraction of breast cancers result from an inherited gene mutation. Once I knew that this was my reality, I decided to be proactive and to minimize the risk as much I could. Photo On April 27, I finished the three months of medical procedures that the mastectomies involved. But I am writing about it now because I hope that other women can benefit from my experience. It is reassuring that they see nothing that makes them uncomfortable.
Cancer pain Pain in cancer may arise from a tumor compressing or infiltrating tissue; from treatments and diagnostic procedures; or from skin, nerve and other changes caused by either the body's immune response or hormones released by the tumor. Most acute (short-term) pain is caused by treatment or diagnostic procedures, although radiotherapy and chemotherapy may produce painful conditions that persist long after treatment has ended. At any given time, about half of all patients with malignant cancer are experiencing pain, more than a third of them experience moderate or severe pain that diminishes their quality of life by adversely affecting mood, sleep, social relations and activities of daily living. The presence of pain depends mainly on the location of the cancer and the stage of the disease. Two thirds of patients with advanced stage cancer experience significant pain. Pain The sensation of pain is distinct from its unpleasantness. Cause Infection Tumor-related
Water fluoridation controversy The water fluoridation controversy arises from political, moral, ethical, and safety concerns regarding the fluoridation of public water supplies. The controversy occurs mainly in English-speaking countries, as Continental Europe has ceased water fluoridation. Those opposed argue that water fluoridation may cause serious health problems, is not effective enough to justify the costs, and has a dosage that cannot be precisely controlled. In some countries, fluoride is added to table salt. At the dosage recommended for water fluoridation, the only known adverse effect is dental fluorosis, which can alter the appearance of children's teeth during tooth development. Dental fluorosis is cosmetic and unlikely to represent any other effect on public health. Despite opponents' concerns, water fluoridation has been effective at reducing cavities in both children and adults. Ethics Safety Efficacy Statements against water fluoridation Neutral statement Use throughout the world
Monsanto Founded in 1901 by John Francis Queeny, by the 1940s Monsanto was a major producer of plastics, including polystyrene and synthetic fibers. Notable achievements by Monsanto and its scientists as a chemical company included breakthrough research on catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation and being the first company to mass-produce light emitting diodes (LEDs). The company also formerly manufactured controversial products such as the insecticide DDT, PCBs, Agent Orange, and recombinant bovine somatotropin (a.k.a. bovine growth hormone). Monsanto was among the first to genetically modify a plant cell, along with three academic teams, which was announced in 1983, and was among the first to conduct field trials of genetically modified crops, which it did in 1987. History In the beginning (Early 1900s): Saccharin and chemicals Monsanto was founded in St. In 1926 the company founded and incorporated a town called Monsanto in Illinois (now known as Sauget). Spin-offs and mergers
Genetically modified food Genetically modified foods (or GM foods) are foods produced from organisms that have had specific changes introduced into their DNA using the methods of genetic engineering. These techniques have allowed for the introduction of new crop traits as well as a far greater control over a food's genetic structure than previously afforded by methods such as selective breeding and mutation breeding. Commercial sale of genetically modified foods began in 1994, when Calgene first marketed its Flavr Savr delayed ripening tomato. To date, most genetic modification of foods have primarily focused on cash crops in high demand by farmers such as soybean, corn, canola, and cotton seed oil. These have been engineered for resistance to pathogens and herbicides and better nutrient profiles. GM livestock have also been experimentally developed, although as of November 2013 none are currently on the market. History Method of production Foods with protein or DNA remaining from GMOs Fruits and vegetables
Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913, with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907. Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the Federal Reserve System have expanded, and its structure has evolved. Events such as the Great Depression were major factors leading to changes in the system. The U.S. The authority of the Federal Reserve System is derived from statutes enacted by the U.S. Purpose Current functions of the Federal Reserve System include: Addressing the problem of bank panics Banking institutions in the United States are required to hold reserves – amounts of currency and deposits in other banks – equal to only a fraction of the amount of the banks' deposit liabilities owed to customers. Emergencies
Gardasil Development history The research that led to the development of the vaccine began in the 1980s by groups at the University of Rochester, Georgetown University, and the US National Cancer Institute (NCI). In 1991, Australian investigators Jian Zhou and Ian Frazer at The University of Queensland found a way to form non-infectious virus-like particles (VLP), which could also strongly activate the immune system. However, these VLPs assembled poorly and did not have the same structure as infectious HPV. In 1993, a laboratory at the US National Cancer Institute was able to generate HPV16 VLPs that were morphologically correct. Clinical trials Merck & Co. conducted a Phase III study named Females United to Unilaterally Reduce Endo/Ectocervical Disease (FUTURE II). Indications and prevalence Gardasil is a prophylactic HPV vaccine, meaning that it is designed to prevent HPV infections. Merck was denied FDA approval to market Gardasil to women aged 27 to 45. Use in males
Tuskegee syphilis experiment A doctor draws blood from one of the Tuskegee test subjects. The Tuskegee syphilis experiment (/tʌsˈkiːɡiː/) was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African American men who thought they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government. The Public Health Service started working with the Tuskegee Institute in 1932. Investigators enrolled in the study a total of 600 impoverished sharecroppers from Macon County, Alabama. 399 of those men had previously contracted syphilis before the study began, and 201 did not have the disease. The 40-year study was controversial for reasons related to ethical standards, primarily because researchers knowingly failed to treat patients appropriately after the 1940s validation of penicillin as an effective cure for the disease they were studying. By 1947, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis.