Data mining Data mining is the process of discovering patterns in large data sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems. Data mining is an interdisciplinary subfield of computer science with an overall goal to extract information (with intelligent methods) from a data set and transform the information into a comprehensible structure for further use. Data mining is the analysis step of the "knowledge discovery in databases" process, or KDD. Aside from the raw analysis step, it also involves database and data management aspects, data pre-processing, model and inference considerations, interestingness metrics, complexity considerations, post-processing of discovered structures, visualization, and online updating. Etymology In the 1960s, statisticians and economists used terms like data fishing or data dredging to refer to what they considered the bad practice of analyzing data without an a-priori hypothesis. Process
White hat One of the first instances of an ethical hack being used was a "security evaluation" conducted by the United States Air Force of the Multics operating systems for "potential use as a two-level (secret/top secret) system." Their evaluation found that while Multics was "significantly better than other conventional systems," it also had "... vulnerabilities in hardware security, software security and procedural security" that could be uncovered with "a relatively low level of effort." The authors performed their tests under a guideline of realism, so that their results would accurately represent the kinds of access that an intruder could potentially achieve. While penetration testing concentrates on attacking software and computer systems from the start – scanning ports, examining known defects and patch installations, for example – ethical hacking, which will likely include such things, is under no such limitations. Ethical Hacking
Understanding your equipment | Rory Peck Trust In the last section, we identified your digital equipment as a potential threat. Here’s where you’ll dig deeper into what poses a problem and how to deal with it. A. What kinds of messages will you be sending or receiving? Is your communication encrypted? B. If the topic you are covering is sensitive, it’s likely that it will involve information that was intended to remain secret or confidential. One way to determine if you should encrypt an electronic file is to think about it as if it were a physical thing: If it was a paper document, would you shred it before throwing it out? How can I use encryption? C. Think of all the possibilities: theft, confiscation, accidental loss, a mix up at the airport, leaving your computer or mobile in another room, taking it to the repair shop, storing it in a hotel while you’re out… These are just some of the reasons you may not have a piece of technology with you at one time or another. What information is on your mobile, laptop or other devices? D.
Research and development Cycle of research and development The research and development (R&D, also called research and technical development or research and technological development, RTD in Europe) is a specific group of activities within a business. The activities that are classified as R&D differ from company to company, but there are two primary models. In one model, the primary function of an R&D group is to develop new products; in the other model, the primary function of an R&D group is to discover and create new knowledge about scientific and technological topics for the purpose of uncovering and enabling development of valuable new products, processes, and services. Under both models, R&D differs from the vast majority of a company's activities which are intended to yield nearly immediate profit or immediate improvements in operations and involve little uncertainty as to the return on investment (ROI). Background Business Present-day R&D is a core part of the modern business world.
Australian spies buying computer bugs David Sancho, from Trend Micro, says buying bugs from reseachers encourages them to find more. Photo: Alex Schelbert The Australian government is buying computer security weaknesses found by hackers before they are sold on the black market, as part of its defence strategy, claim those at the coal face of cyber security. "The Australian government has developed these capabilities as part of ASIO, DSD [Defence Signals Directorate], CSOC [Cyber Security Operations Centre] and possibly others. He says while the government won't admit it, buying vulnerabilities is an obvious part of "gathering intelligence". Trading in vulnerabilities is a moot point in technology circles. Advertisement "There is a trade in weaponised exploits being provided by hackers to the security vendors," confirms another source, a hacker, who spoke to Fairfax's IT Pro on the condition of anonymity. "These exploits are then sold on to governments after being packaged into one of the many exploitation frameworks."
Information Security Information Security: With CPJ Internet Advocacy Coordinator Danny O’Brien Information security means defending your data, from research notes to the confidential details of your contacts, from basic details of your itinerary to audio and video files. It means protecting data that is private to you, as well as protecting the privacy of communication between you and your colleagues or sources. The volume and sophistication of attacks on journalists’ digital data is increasing at an alarming rate. In the end, though, good information security is rarely about fending off sophisticated cyberattacks and Hollywood-style hackers. Understanding the Threat Information security poses unique challenges. What does this mean? Ask yourself: What information should I protect? Once you have written a list of potentially valuable data, ask another question: From whom are you defending this information? Protecting Communications More groups now have the power to conduct spying. Defending Your Data
Penetration test A penetration test , occasionally pentest , is a method of evaluating the computer security of a computer system or network by simulating an attack from external threats and internal threats. [ 1 ] The process involves an active analysis of the system for any potential vulnerabilities that could result from poor or improper system configuration, both known and unknown hardware or software flaws, or operational weaknesses in process or technical countermeasures. [ citation needed ] This analysis is carried out from the position of a potential attacker and can involve active exploitation of security vulnerabilities. [ citation needed ] Security issues uncovered through the penetration test are presented to the system's owner. [ citation needed ] Effective penetration tests will couple this information with an accurate assessment of the potential impacts to the organization and outline a range of technical and procedural countermeasures to reduce risks. [ citation needed ] Tools [ edit ]
Spear Phishing: What It Is and How to Avoid It | Norton Introduction The latest twist on phishing is spear phishing. No, it's not a sport, it's a scam and you're the target. Email from a "Friend" The spear phisher thrives on familiarity. Using Your Web Presence Against You How do you become a target of a spear phisher? Keep Your Secrets Secret How safe you and your information remain depends in part on you being careful. Passwords That Work Think about your passwords. Patches, Updates, and Security Software When you get notices from software vendors to update your software, do it. Be Smart If a "friend" emails and asks for a password or other information, call or email (in a separate email) that friend to verify that they were really who contacted you. And always remember: Don't give up too much personal information online, because you never know who might use it against you.
Kali Linux Kali Linux is a Debian-derived Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing. It is maintained and funded by Offensive Security Ltd. It was developed by Mati Aharoni and Devon Kearns of Offensive Security through the rewrite of BackTrack, their previous forensics Linux distribution. Kali Linux is distributed in 32- and 64-bit images for use on hosts based on the x86 instruction set, and as an image for the ARM architecture for use on the Raspberry Pi computer and on Samsung's ARM Chromebook. References External links
Malware - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Malware, short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems. Malware is defined by its malicious intent, acting against the requirements of the computer user, and does not include software that causes unintentional harm due to some deficiency. The term badware is sometimes used, and applied to both true (malicious) malware and unintentionally harmful software. In law, malware is sometimes known as a computer contaminant, as in the legal codes of several U.S. states. Spyware or other malware is sometimes found embedded in programs supplied officially by companies, e.g., downloadable from websites, that appear useful or attractive, but may have, for example, additional hidden tracking functionality that gathers marketing statistics. Purposes Malware by categories on 16 March 2011. Proliferation Infectious malware: viruses and worms Viruses Rootkits
United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America The United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America often simply, the United Brotherhood of Carpenters (UBC)  was formed by Peter J. McGuire and Gustav Luebkert. In 1881. It has become one of the largest trade unions in the United States, and through chapters, and locals, there is international cooperation that poises the brotherhood for a global role. For example the North American Chapter has over 520,000 members throughout the continent.  Early years The union was created in April 1881, by Peter J. While Peter J. The union also struck to obtain the eight hour day, calling a strike of its affiliates for May 1, 1886. Even so, the strike gave the Brotherhood added visibility that led to increased membership. The Brotherhood admitted both black and white carpenters on an equal footing when it was first formed; one of the union's vice-presidents in its early years was L.E. Expansion and conflict Depression and change Challenge from non-union contractors