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Peter Principle

Peter Principle
An illustration visualizing the Peter principle The Peter Principle is a concept in management theory in which the selection of a candidate for a position is based on the candidate's performance in his or her current role rather than on abilities relevant to the intended role. Thus, employees only stop being promoted once they can no longer perform effectively, and "managers rise to the level of their incompetence." The principle is named after Laurence J. Overview[edit] The Peter Principle is a special case of a ubiquitous observation: Anything that works will be used in progressively more challenging applications until it fails. Peter suggests that "[i]n time, every post tends to be occupied by an employee who is incompetent to carry out its duties"[2] and that "work is accomplished by those employees who have not yet reached their level of incompetence." Responses[edit] There are methods that organizations can use to mitigate the risk associated with the Peter Principle: Research[edit] Related:  Education Nationale

Dunning–Kruger effect The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias wherein relatively unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability to be much higher than is accurate. The bias was first experimentally observed by David Dunning and Justin Kruger of Cornell University in 1999. Dunning and Kruger attributed the bias to the metacognitive inability of the unskilled to evaluate their own ability level accurately. Their research also suggests that conversely, highly skilled individuals may underestimate their relative competence, erroneously assuming that tasks that are easy for them also are easy for others.[1] Dunning and Kruger have postulated that the effect is the result of internal illusion in the unskilled, and external misperception in the skilled: "The miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others Original study[edit] Supporting studies[edit] Award[edit]

What to Do With a Workplace Whiner Parkinson's Law UK First edition book cover Originally, Parkinson's law is the adage that "work expands so as to fill the time available for its completion", and the title of a book which made it well-known. However, in current understanding, Parkinson's law is a reference to the self-satisfying uncontrolled growth of the bureaucratic apparatus in an organization. History[edit] Articulated by Cyril Northcote Parkinson as part of the first sentence of a humorous essay published in The Economist in 1955 and since republished online,[1][2] it was reprinted with other essays in the book Parkinson's Law: The Pursuit of Progress (London, John Murray, 1958). He derived the dictum from his extensive experience in the British Civil Service. A current form of the law is not the one Parkinson refers to by that name in the article, but a mathematical equation describing the rate at which bureaucracies expand over time. Parkinson's Law was translated into many languages. Corollaries[edit] Generalization[edit]

New Skintight Spacesuit Design Unveiled July 17, 2007Can an engineer bring sexy backto the future? Dava Newman, a professor of astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, just might if her new space suit design makes it off the launching pad. Yesterday she unveiled the BioSuit, a skintight, next-generation space suit prototype that she and a team of researchers have spent seven years developing. The new suit, which Newman is modeling here, could make space exploration safer and easierand maybe a little more fashion forwardthanks to specially reinforced fabrics. Traditional space suits are too heavy and ungainly to meet the challenges of future space travel, which will likely require more mobility and greater comfort, Newman said. "It's a whole different ballgame when we go to the moon or Mars and we have to go back to walking and running or loping," she said in a press statement. "You can't do much bending of the arms or legs in that [old] type of suit."

Connaître la loi dans l’Éducation nationale Avant d'aller plus loin, testez vos connaissances... Lisez attentivement chacune des questions suivantes, puis essayez d'y répondre par oui ou par non. Question 1 Les fonctionnaires de l'Éducation nationale sont-ils tenus à l'obligation de réserve ? Question 2: Les fonctionnaires de l'Éducation nationale sont-ils tenus au secret professionnel ? Question 3 Un fonctionnaire de l’Éducation nationale qui, hors de son cadre professionnel, prend connaissance d’un fait de mauvais traitements infligés à un enfant est-il tenu de le signaler ? Question 4 En rentrant chez moi, j’apprends par hasard que mon voisin de palier s’apprête à commettre un crime. Question 5 Question 6 Un fonctionnaire qui, dans le cadre de ses missions, prend connaissance d’un crime ou d’un délit peut-il invoquer le secret professionnel pour ne pas signaler les faits ? Question 7 Question 8 Question 9 Question 10

Top 10 Things That Determine Happiness photo: meddygarnet Happiness is, by nature, a subjective quality with a definition like a moving target. There is scant evidence — qualitative or quantitative — to lend convincing support to those life variables most critical in determining individual happiness, which is likely why past researchers committed to the scientific method rarely tried to tackle the subject. This is changing. While we’re not entirely convinced of this marriage between science and subjectivity, we can still offer up a top 10 of things that determine human happiness, as supported by this growing body of research. No.10 – Having a short memory Are you one to hold grudges? No.9 – Exacting fairness According to a recently published study in the prestigious journal Nature, people derive more happiness from scenarios and situations that result in a perceived fairness for everyone involved, even when this fairness goes against self-interest or comes at some personal cost. No.8 – Having lots of friendships No.2 – Good genes

This is what a GOOD resume should look like Although the example here is a developer resume, almost all of these points (everything but #9 and #11) apply to other positions as well. If your resume doesn't look like this, we can help! One Page Resume: Recruiters do not read your resume; they do a 15 - 30 second "spot check" of your resume. When your resume is too long, it just takes your best stuff - the stuff that would have made the "one page cut" - and dilutes it with more mediocre content. No Objectives: All an objective does is state, in a wordy way, what position you're interested in. Use a Resume Template with Columns: Unless you're great with design, you probably shouldn't be creating your own resume template. Use Tables: If you're using Microsoft Word to create your resume (which you probably should), use Microsoft Word's "tables." Short Bullets: Because resume screeners only spend 15 - 30 seconds on your resume, length bullets - anything that feels like a paragraph - just won't get read. What did you NOT include?

Edgar Schein Edgar Henry Schein (born March 5, 1928), a former professor at the MIT Sloan School of Management, has made a notable mark on the field of organizational development in many areas, including career development, group process consultation, and organizational culture. He is the son of former University of Chicago professor Marcel Schein. Schein's organizational culture model[edit] Illustration of Schein's model of organizational culture Schein's model of organizational culture originated in the 1980s. artifacts and behavioursespoused valuesassumptions The three levels refer to the degree to which the different cultural phenomena are visible to the observer. Artifacts include any tangible, overt or verbally identifiable elements in an organization. Schein's 'Career Anchors'[edit] A career anchor is one's self-concept, and consists of one's perceptions of one's talents and abilities, one's basic values and one's perceptions of motives and needs as they pertain to career. Education[edit] Awards

15 Must-Know Facts on How People View Websites Do you know what is the first thing that your eye is drawn to on a website? And in what pattern do people scan your website? There have been many eyetracking tests on this subject and I’ll give you 15 most useful facts you should know. The picture below shows 3 different websites and where people look on them. Red indicates the area, where people looked the most, yellow areas got a bit less eye-action, blue areas got the least views and the gray areas, well, people didn’t focus on them at all. As you can see, the more people scroll down, the more they lose focus and start mainly scanning your website. Here are the 15 facts you should know on how people view websites. Text attracts more attention than pictures. There you go. Sources: BBC News | directcreative | GoogleBlog

enseignants: devoir de réserve ? Les fonctionnaires de l'Éducation nationale sont-ils tenus à l'obligation de réserve ? L'obligation de réserve a été supprimée par la loi du 13 juillet 1983. Elle ne s'applique plus que pour les magistrats (auxquels s'adresse toujours l'article 10 de l'ordonnance n°58-1270 du 22 décembre 1958) ou certains fonctionnaires à l'occasion de circonstances exceptionnelles (le contexte diplomatique par exemple) qui ne concernent pas l'exercice ordinaire des agents de l'Éducation nationale. La loi du 13 juillet 1983 leur reconnaît une totale liberté d'opinion (Art. 6), l'activité politique (Art. 7) et syndicale (Art. 8) et le droit de grève (Art. 10) que certains ministres autoritaires voudraient bien voir disparaître. tribune libre du journal Le Monde daté du 31 janvier 2008. Anicet Lepors, qui était à cette époque ministre de la Fonction Publique, donne son analyse de l'obligation de réserve dans une Loi n° 78-753 du 17 juillet 1978 consultables par tout le monde).

Welcome to Adobe GoLive 6 From Los Angeles Times: It's not all about you Chances are, others aren't judging you as harshly as you think, if at all. By Benedict Carey Times Staff Writer January 13, 2003 Oh, things sure took a bad turn. Take a deep breath. A growing body of research shows that far fewer people notice our gaffes than we believe as we pace the floor in private, going over and over the faux pas. Learning to recognize this self-deception can soothe the anxiety that surrounds social interactions. The spotlight effect blinds us in several ways. A pioneer in this field, Tom Gilovich, a psychologist at Cornell, has demonstrated the same exaggerated misperceptions in several situations, such as group discussions about social issues. The findings apply to most of us, of course, but not to everybody -- some people really do live under a microscope, as a chosen way of life. Most of the time a mistake is just a mistake, not a death sentence. Yet we don't expect that same empathy for ourselves.

Earn Money for Web User Testing - UserTesting.com What do I need to get started? A PC or Mac, an internet connection, and a microphone. You’ll need an iPhone, iPad, Android phone or Android tablet If you’d like to take Mobile tests Ability to download our testing software You must be at least 18 years old Ability to speak your thoughts aloud in English How much money can I make? While UserTesting is a great way to earn a few extra dollars on the side, it won’t make you rich. How do I get paid? We pay our testers via PayPal. We are accepting testers from the following countries: Algeria Bahrain Botswana India Israel Jordan Kenya Kuwait Lesotho Malawi Morocco Mozambique Oman Qatar Réunion Saudi Arabia Seychelles South Africa United Arab Emirates Australia China Fiji French Polynesia Hong Kong Indonesia Japan Malaysia New Caledonia New Zealand Palau Philippines Singapore South Korea Taiwan Thailand Vietnam What is the Sign-Up Process? Signup is quick and easy.

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