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Peter Principle

Peter Principle
An illustration visualizing the Peter principle The Peter Principle is a concept in management theory in which the selection of a candidate for a position is based on the candidate's performance in his or her current role rather than on abilities relevant to the intended role. Thus, employees only stop being promoted once they can no longer perform effectively, and "managers rise to the level of their incompetence." The principle is named after Laurence J. Overview[edit] The Peter Principle is a special case of a ubiquitous observation: Anything that works will be used in progressively more challenging applications until it fails. Peter suggests that "[i]n time, every post tends to be occupied by an employee who is incompetent to carry out its duties"[2] and that "work is accomplished by those employees who have not yet reached their level of incompetence." Responses[edit] There are methods that organizations can use to mitigate the risk associated with the Peter Principle: Research[edit] Related:  Education Nationale

Dunning–Kruger effect The Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias wherein relatively unskilled individuals suffer from illusory superiority, mistakenly assessing their ability to be much higher than is accurate. The bias was first experimentally observed by David Dunning and Justin Kruger of Cornell University in 1999. Dunning and Kruger attributed the bias to the metacognitive inability of the unskilled to evaluate their own ability level accurately. Their research also suggests that conversely, highly skilled individuals may underestimate their relative competence, erroneously assuming that tasks that are easy for them also are easy for others.[1] Dunning and Kruger have postulated that the effect is the result of internal illusion in the unskilled, and external misperception in the skilled: "The miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others Original study[edit] Supporting studies[edit] Award[edit]

Connaître la loi dans l’Éducation nationale Avant d'aller plus loin, testez vos connaissances... Lisez attentivement chacune des questions suivantes, puis essayez d'y répondre par oui ou par non. Question 1 Les fonctionnaires de l'Éducation nationale sont-ils tenus à l'obligation de réserve ? Question 2: Les fonctionnaires de l'Éducation nationale sont-ils tenus au secret professionnel ? Question 3 Un fonctionnaire de l’Éducation nationale qui, hors de son cadre professionnel, prend connaissance d’un fait de mauvais traitements infligés à un enfant est-il tenu de le signaler ? Question 4 En rentrant chez moi, j’apprends par hasard que mon voisin de palier s’apprête à commettre un crime. Question 5 Question 6 Un fonctionnaire qui, dans le cadre de ses missions, prend connaissance d’un crime ou d’un délit peut-il invoquer le secret professionnel pour ne pas signaler les faits ? Question 7 Question 8 Question 9 Question 10

Color Psychology by David Johnson Like death and taxes, there is no escaping color. It is ubiquitous. Colors often have different meanings in various cultures. Black Black is the color of authority and power. White Brides wear white to symbolize innocence and purity. Red The most emotionally intense color, red stimulates a faster heartbeat and breathing. The most romantic color, pink, is more tranquilizing. Blue The color of the sky and the ocean, blue is one of the most popular colors. Green Currently the most popular decorating color, green symbolizes nature. Yellow Cheerful sunny yellow is an attention getter. Purple The color of royalty, purple connotes luxury, wealth, and sophistication. Brown Solid, reliable brown is the color of earth and is abundant in nature. Colors of the Flag In the U.S. flag, white stands for purity and innocence. Food for Thought While blue is one of the most popular colors it is one of the least appetizing. Green, brown, and red are the most popular food colors.

To get a job, write your story instead of a resume - Quartz I am 61 years old and I have been doing paid work since I was 16. I’ve been a grocery clerk, camp counselor, film projectionist, sound man, light man, cameraman, freight loader, computer programmer, teacher, operations research analyst, manager, salesman, writer, consultant, and for the last 30 years I’ve been a securities trader and hedge fund manager. Yet I have only once gotten work by answering an ad. Even then I was turned down at first, but it led to a different job six months later after I established a relationship with the hiring manager who had first said no. And I’ve never been asked for a resume until after I received an offer, and then only because HR always needs something to put in their files. I haven’t needed a resume to get work because my resume doesn’t reveal my work. Here are some things I’ve discovered about finding worthwhile work that have helped me, and that might help you. Lead a thoughtful life Learn to think. Get your story straight But in the middle of what?

Top 10 Things That Determine Happiness photo: meddygarnet Happiness is, by nature, a subjective quality with a definition like a moving target. There is scant evidence — qualitative or quantitative — to lend convincing support to those life variables most critical in determining individual happiness, which is likely why past researchers committed to the scientific method rarely tried to tackle the subject. This is changing. While we’re not entirely convinced of this marriage between science and subjectivity, we can still offer up a top 10 of things that determine human happiness, as supported by this growing body of research. No.10 – Having a short memory Are you one to hold grudges? No.9 – Exacting fairness According to a recently published study in the prestigious journal Nature, people derive more happiness from scenarios and situations that result in a perceived fairness for everyone involved, even when this fairness goes against self-interest or comes at some personal cost. No.8 – Having lots of friendships No.2 – Good genes

enseignants: devoir de réserve ? Les fonctionnaires de l'Éducation nationale sont-ils tenus à l'obligation de réserve ? L'obligation de réserve a été supprimée par la loi du 13 juillet 1983. Elle ne s'applique plus que pour les magistrats (auxquels s'adresse toujours l'article 10 de l'ordonnance n°58-1270 du 22 décembre 1958) ou certains fonctionnaires à l'occasion de circonstances exceptionnelles (le contexte diplomatique par exemple) qui ne concernent pas l'exercice ordinaire des agents de l'Éducation nationale. La loi du 13 juillet 1983 leur reconnaît une totale liberté d'opinion (Art. 6), l'activité politique (Art. 7) et syndicale (Art. 8) et le droit de grève (Art. 10) que certains ministres autoritaires voudraient bien voir disparaître. tribune libre du journal Le Monde daté du 31 janvier 2008. Anicet Lepors, qui était à cette époque ministre de la Fonction Publique, donne son analyse de l'obligation de réserve dans une Loi n° 78-753 du 17 juillet 1978 consultables par tout le monde).

The Relativity of Wrong by Isaac Asimov by Isaac Asimov I received a letter from a reader the other day. It was handwritten in crabbed penmanship so that it was very difficult to read. In the first sentence, he told me he was majoring in English Literature, but felt he needed to teach me science. It seemed that in one of my innumerable essays, here and elsewhere, I had expressed a certain gladness at living in a century in which we finally got the basis of the Universe straight. I didn't go into detail in the matter, but what I meant was that we now know the basic rules governing the Universe, together with the gravitational interrelationships of its gross components, as shown in the theory of relativity worked out between 1905 and 1916. These are all twentieth-century discoveries, you see. The young specialist in English Lit, having quoted me, went on to lecture me severely on the fact that in every century people have thought they understood the Universe at last, and in every century they were proven to be wrong. "Wrong!"

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Welcome to Adobe GoLive 6 From Los Angeles Times: It's not all about you Chances are, others aren't judging you as harshly as you think, if at all. By Benedict Carey Times Staff Writer January 13, 2003 Oh, things sure took a bad turn. Take a deep breath. A growing body of research shows that far fewer people notice our gaffes than we believe as we pace the floor in private, going over and over the faux pas. Learning to recognize this self-deception can soothe the anxiety that surrounds social interactions. The spotlight effect blinds us in several ways. A pioneer in this field, Tom Gilovich, a psychologist at Cornell, has demonstrated the same exaggerated misperceptions in several situations, such as group discussions about social issues. The findings apply to most of us, of course, but not to everybody -- some people really do live under a microscope, as a chosen way of life. Most of the time a mistake is just a mistake, not a death sentence. Yet we don't expect that same empathy for ourselves.

Certifiés : notation pédagogique La notation pédagogique fait partie, avec la notation administrative, de la double évaluation annuelle de l’enseignant certifié qui prend en compte et reconnaît la spécificité de notre métier. (Article 30 du décret n°72-581 du 4 juillet 1972 relatif au statut particulier des professeurs certifiés.) La note pédagogique (sur 60) est attribuée après une visite d’inspection effectuée, dans la plupart des cas, par un IPR. La note est communiquée par arrêté au plus tard dans l’année scolaire qui suit celle de l’inspection. Cette note pédagogique ne peut être contestée mais il est possible d’adresser toute remarque à son sujet à l’inspecteur qui a effectué la visite ainsi qu’au doyen de l’inspection générale de sa discipline. On peut agir de même au sujet du rapport d’inspection rédigé à la suite de cette même visite. Le corps des professeurs certifiés étant un corps à gestion déconcentrée depuis 1989, les procédures de notation et d’avancement d’échelon sont elles-mêmes déconcentrées.

15 styles of Distorted Thinking 15 styles of Distorted Thinking Filtering: You take the negative details and magnify them while filtering out all positive aspects of a situation. Polarized Thinking: Things are black or white, good or bad. You have to be perfect or you're a failure. There is no middle ground. Checklist for Hidden Anger Procrastination in the completion of imposed tasks. Communication Charts Around The World