# Digital Camera Sensor Sizes: How it Influences Your Photography

This article aims to address the question: how does your digital camera's sensor size influence different types of photography? Your choice of sensor size is analogous to choosing between 35 mm, medium format and large format film cameras — with a few notable differences unique to digital technology. Much confusion often arises on this topic because there are both so many different size options, and so many trade-offs relating to depth of field, image noise, diffraction, cost and size/weight. Background reading on this topic can be found in the tutorial on digital camera sensors. Sensor sizes currently have many possibilities, depending on their use, price point and desired portability. Canon's 1Ds/5D and Nikon D3 series are the most common full frame sensors. Camera phones and other compact cameras use sensor sizes in the range of ~1/4" to 2/3". The crop factor is the sensor's diagonal size compared to a full-frame 35 mm sensor. 35 mm Full Frame Angle of View Uncropped Photograph

www.tawbaware.com/maxlyons/calc.htm This page contains several calculators of use to photographers. All of the calculators are written using Javascript, which means you'll need a Javascript enabled browser (IE/Firefox/Opera/Chrome/etc.) to use this page. It also means that you can download/save this page to your computer and use the calculators without being connected to the internet. Fields displayed on the left of the "compute" button are for user input. This calculator computes depth of field, based on aperture, focal length, distance to subject and Circle of Confusion (CoC). This calculator computes the degree of parallax error that occurs when a camera is rotated around a point that isn't the nodal point. This calculator computes the angular field of view for a lens of a specified focal length on a 35mm camera. This calculator computes the field of view, measured in feet or meters, for a lens of a specified focal length on a 35mm camera.

Learning about Exposure – The Exposure Triangle A Post By: Darren Rowse Bryan Peterson has written a book titled Understanding Exposure which is a highly recommended read if you’re wanting to venture out of the Auto mode on your digital camera and experiment with it’s manual settings. In it Bryan illustrates the three main elements that need to be considered when playing around with exposure by calling them ‘the exposure triangle’. Each of the three aspects of the triangle relate to light and how it enters and interacts with the camera. The three elements are: ISO – the measure of a digital camera sensor’s sensitivity to lightAperture – the size of the opening in the lens when a picture is takenShutter Speed – the amount of time that the shutter is open It is at the intersection of these three elements that an image’s exposure is worked out. Most importantly – a change in one of the elements will impact the others. 3 Metaphors for understanding the digital photography exposure triangle: The Window Aperture is the size of the window.

Focusing Basics | Aperture and Depth of Field Depth of Field Depth of Field (DOF) is the front-to-back zone of a photograph in which the image is razor sharp. As soon as an object (person, thing) falls out of this range, it begins to lose focus at an accelerating degree the farther out of the zone it falls; e.g. closer to the lens or deeper into the background. With any DOF zone, there is a Point of Optimum focus in which the object is most sharp. There are two ways to describe the qualities of depth of field - shallow DOF or deep DOF. Aperture The aperture is the opening at the rear of the lens that determines how much light travels through the lens and falls on the image sensor. Small vs Large Aperture Manipulating the aperture is the easiest and most often utilized means to adjust Depth of Field. Aperture Range The aperture range identifies the widest to smallest range of lens openings, i.e. f/1.4 (on a super-fast lens) to f/32, with incremental “stops” in between (f/2, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, and f/22). Conclusion

Aperture Diffraction Limits - Lonestardigital.com Apertures, Pixel Sizes, and Diffraction Limits. Contrary to popular belief, smaller lens apertures (with their greater depth of field) don't necessarily result in sharper pictures. When the negative effects of aperture diffraction begin to outweigh the positive effects of increased depth of field, sharpness falls off and fuzziness sets in. Smaller apertures also cause slower shutter speeds, often requiring higher ISO settings to make a shot. Understanding how aperture diffraction works and relating how diffraction applies to your camera will help you to take sharper pictures. Cambridge in Colour has an outstanding tutorial & essay about diffraction limited photography. Below: A representation of Cambridge in Colour's interactive visual diffraction table. This will all make more sense when you go to the tutorial, read the article, and try out the real interactive table for yourself. Hover your mouse pointer over the camera of choice (hover, don't click). Visual Table Examples:

DSLR Tips Workshop: How to use polarizing filters to reduce haze and deepen blue sky DSLR Tips Workshop: Using polarizing filters to cut through haze and deepen blue skies Landscape shots with distant subjects like canyon rims or mountain ranges can often look hazy even under the sunniest conditions. One of the most effective ways of cutting through this haze and capturing a vibrant photo with saturated colours and a deep blue sky is to use a polarizing filter. In this workshop we’ll show you everything you need to know. The photo of the mountain range, above left, may have been taken under bright, sunny conditions, but the result looks hazy and is lacking impact. The photo above right was taken under exactly the same lighting conditions only moments later, but with a polarizing filter set to deliver its maximum effect. Checklist: Using polarizing filters 1: Buy a circular polarizing filter which matches the thread on your lens; check the end of the barrel to find out the correct size. Watch out! Sometimes polarizing filters can make the sky an unrealistic colour.

Digital Camera Diffraction – Resolution, Color & Micro-Contrast The exact value of the diffraction-limited aperture is often a contentious topic amongst photographers. Some might claim it's at f/11 for a given digital camera, while others will insist that it's closer to f/16, for example. While the precise f-stop doesn't really matter, it's good to clarify why there's so many opinions, and how these differences might translate into how your photograph actually appears. This article is intended as an addendum to the earlier tutorial on diffraction in photography. Knowing the diffraction limit requires knowing how much detail a camera could resolve under ideal circumstances. Bayer Color Filter Arrays. Anti-Aliasing Filter & Microlenses. The end result is that the camera's resolution is better than one would expect if each 2x2 block containing all three colors represented a pixel, but not quite as good as each individual pixel. If it's not simply the pixel size, how does one define the resolution of a digital camera? Extinction Resolution.

RAW vs JPEG The RAW vs JPEG topic seems like a never ending debate in photography. Some photographers say shoot RAW, while others say shoot JPEG. What is RAW format in digital photography? What are the advantages and disadvantages of RAW versus JPEG and why? Should you shoot in RAW or JPEG? Will shooting in RAW complicate your post-production and workflow? Sand Dunes - Shot in RAW I remember my first time going through the camera options and reading the Nikon D80 manual, wondering about what RAW does and why I should consider using it. Sounds familiar? 1) What is RAW? RAW images, also known as “digital negatives” are virtually unprocessed files coming directly from the camera sensor. 1.1) Advantages of RAW format Compared to 8-bit JPEG format that can only contain up to 256 shades of Red, Green and Blue colors (total of 16 million), 12-bit RAW images contain the most amount of information with 4,096 shades or Red, Green and Blue (equivalent of 68 billion colors!) 1.2) Disadvantages of RAW format

Megapixels Comparison and Maximum Print Size Charts [46 Comments] Michael 05 Jul 2006 10:15pm "Nice guide, I got a 7 Megapixel Camera and it makes beautiful 8x10s. Even though 7 is not on the chart it is not difficult to see where it would fit. I haven't tried anything larger than a 8x10. Daniela 17 Jul 2006 11:44am "Thanks for bringing some light into the megapixel mistery!" mike berry 07 Oct 2006 8:43pm "When you go from 8x10 to 16x20 aren't you quadrupling the area? [Reply from Robert Giordano]Strictly speaking in terms of pixels per inch, with no post editing, an 8x10 @ 300ppi is (8x300) x (10x300), or 7,200,000 pixels (7MP). Randy 07 Oct 2006 11:47pm "The critical part that is being left out which needs to be tied into this information is sensor size. [Reply from Robert Giordano]Randy, I totally agree but I'll have to make a different chart on a new page. smartie 08 Oct 2006 1:33am [Reply from Robert Giordano]Yes, you are correct. all wrong 08 Oct 2006 2:07pm "try telling that to this guy: Beckie

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