Social construction of technology - Wikipedia, the free encyclop Social construction of technology (also referred to as SCOT) is a theory within the field of Science and Technology Studies. Advocates of SCOT—that is, social constructivists—argue that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology. They also argue that the ways a technology is used cannot be understood without understanding how that technology is embedded in its social context. SCOT draws on work done in the constructivist school of the sociology of scientific knowledge, and its subtopics include actor-network theory (a branch of the sociology of science and technology) and historical analysis of sociotechnical systems, such as the work of historian Thomas P. SCOT holds that those who seek to understand the reasons for acceptance or rejection of a technology should look to the social world. Legacy of the Strong Programme in the Sociology of Science Symmetry Core concepts Interpretative flexibility Closure STS Wiki
The Californian Ideology Richard Barbrook (left) and Andy Cameron (right) "The Californian Ideology" is a critique of dotcom neoliberalism by English media theorists Richard Barbrook and Andy Cameron of the University of Westminster. Barbrook and Cameron argue that the rise of networking technologies in Silicon Valley in the 1990s was linked to American neoliberalism and a paradoxical hybridization of beliefs from the political left and right in the form of hopeful technological determinism. Andrew Leonard of Salon.com called Barbrook & Cameron's work "one of the most penetrating critiques of neo-conservative digital hypesterism yet published." Louis Rossetto, former editor and publisher of Wired magazine, vehemently denounced it as an "anal retentive attachment to failed 19th century social and economic analysis". Critique Richard Barbrook and Andy Cameron Influences Reception See also Notes References Further reading Barbrook, Richard. (2007). External links
Functionalist, Conflict, and Interaction Perspectives on Mass Media | Essay Topics, Sample Papers & Articles Online for Free It is hard to imagine that just one theoretical view can make clear the many ways that individuals relate with media and technology. Technology covers a wide range from simplistic to complicate. Media is everywhere we look and on every gadget we own. This paper will take a look at mass media from the functionalist, conflict, and interaction perspectives. You can look at a variety of theories and you will find studies and scholars that agree and those who disagree. A sociological approach in functionalism is the reflection of the relationship among the functions of less significant Get even a better essay that will be written specifically for you! parts and the functions of the total. According to the functionalist perspective the media is a marketing product and entertaining, it is socializing individuals, teaching norms, morals, and philosophies to future groups. Advertisements are always shown before movies; it also appears on public transportation and on highway billboards. References:
Metadata Metadata is "data about data". There are two "metadata types;" structural metadata, about the design and specification of data structures or "data about the containers of data"; and descriptive metadata about individual instances of application data or the data content. The main purpose of metadata is to facilitate in the discovery of relevant information, more often classified as resource discovery. Metadata also helps organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, and helps support archiving and preservation of the resource. Metadata assists in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, and giving location information."  Definition Metadata (metacontent) is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data, such as: Metadata is data. Libraries Photographs Video Web pages  
Technology tree One part of Freeciv’s technology tree. Note the complex dependencies between technologies. In strategy computer games, the technology tree or tech tree is a hierarchical visual representation of the possible sequences of upgrades a player can take, by means of research. The diagram is tree-shaped in the sense that it branches at certain intervals, allowing the player to choose one sequence or another. Typically, at the beginning of a session of a strategy game, a player may only have a few options for technologies to research. Each technology that a player researches will open up more options, but may or may not, depending on the computer game the player is playing, close off the paths to other options. A player who is engaged in research activities is said to be "teching up," "going up the tech tree," or "moving up the tech tree." Types of tech tree Prerequisites for technology advances Complexity Are all technologies available? History See also
Transhumanism Transhumanism (abbreviated as H+ or h+) is an international cultural and intellectual movement with an eventual goal of fundamentally transforming the human condition by developing and making widely available technologies to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capacities. Transhumanist thinkers study the potential benefits and dangers of emerging technologies that could overcome fundamental human limitations, as well as the ethics of developing and using such technologies. They speculate that human beings may eventually be able to transform themselves into beings with such greatly expanded abilities as to merit the label "posthuman". History According to Nick Bostrom, transcendentalist impulses have been expressed at least as far back as in the quest for immortality in the Epic of Gilgamesh, as well as historical quests for the Fountain of Youth, Elixir of Life, and other efforts to stave off aging and death. First transhumanist proposals
Ownership and control of the media | a2-level-level-revision, sociology, mass-media-0, ownership-and-control-media After studying this section, you should be able to understand: trends and patterns in ownership and control of a range of mass media the theoretical perspectives on the relationship between ownership and control of the media Trends in ownership and control KEY POINT - Recent trends in media ownership and control suggest that the number of companies controlling global mass media has significantly shrunk in recent years. Bagdikian (2004) notes that in 1983, 50 corporations controlled the vast majority of all news media in the USA, but by 2004 media ownership was concentrated in seven corporations. Curran (2003) notes that ownership of British newspapers has always been concentrated in the hands of a few powerful ‘press barons’, e.g. in 1937 four men owned nearly one in every two national and local daily newspapers sold in Britain. Global conglomeration Horizontal and vertical integration Ownership and control of the mass media is a complex business as the following examples illustrate.
Raw data Raw datas (also known as primary data) is a term for data collected from a source. Raw data has not been subjected to processing or any other manipulation, and are also referred to as primary data. Raw data is a relative term (see data). Raw data can be input to a computer program or used in manual procedures such as analyzing statistics from a survey. The term can refer to the binary data on electronic storage devices such as hard disk drives (also referred to as low-level data). In computing, raw data may have the following attributes: possibly containing errors, not validated; in different (colloquial) formats; uncoded or unformatted; and suspect, requiring confirmation or citation. Raw data (sometimes called "sourcey" data or "eggy" data) are the data input to processing. Although raw data has the potential to become "information," extraction, organization, and sometimes analysis and formatting for presentation are required for that to occur.
Theories of technology There are a number of theories attempting to address technology, which tend to be associated with the disciplines of science and technology studies (STS) and communication studies. Most generally, the theories attempt to address the relationship between technology and society and prompt questions about agency, determinism/autonomy, and teleonomy. If forced, one might categorize them into social and group theories. Additionally, one might distinguish between descriptive and critical theories. Descriptive theories attempt to address the definition and substance of technology, the ways it has emerged, changed and its relation to the human/social sphere. More substantively it addresses the extent of which technology is autonomous and how much force it has in determining human practice or social structure. Social theories Descriptive approaches Key authors include MacKensie and Wajcman (1985) & Pinch and Bijker (1992). Critical approaches Other stances Group theories
Techno-progressivism Stance Strong techno-progressive positions include support for the civil right of a person to either maintain or modify his or her own mind and body, on his or her own terms, through informed, consensual recourse to, or refusal of, available therapeutic or enabling biomedical technology. Contrasting stance Bioconservatism (a portmanteau word combining "biology" and "conservatism") is a stance of hesitancy about technological development especially if it is perceived to threaten a given social order. Bioconservatives range in political perspective from right-leaning religious and cultural conservatives to left-leaning environmentalists and technology critics. List of notable techno-progressive social critics Techno-progressive subjects of interest Controversy References External links
Racism and the Media | Stop Racism and Hate Collective By Yasmin Jiwani As a major institution in society, the media play a critical role. They provide us with definitions about who we are as a nation; they reinforce our values and norms; they give us concrete examples of what happens to those who transgress these norms; and most importantly, they perpetuate certain ways of seeing the world and peoples within that world. Himani Bannerji notes that the media provide us with images of prescription and description. The notion of consensus - that there is a common value system binding us, obscures the hierarchies that are present in Canadian society. The mythical notion that all individuals are equal in society's eyes, and that all possess equal access to institutions such as the media, helps to cement our notion of our society/nation as a liberal state. In the same vein, the media see themselves as the "fourth estate" -reporting on issues of concern to the citizens of the nation. Media and Racism: How then do the media perpetuate racism? 1. 2.