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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642), often known mononymously as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",[4] the "father of modern physics",[5][6] the "father of science",[6][7] and "the father of modern science".[8] Early life Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Duchy of Florence), Italy, in 1564,[15] the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati. Although a genuinely pious Roman Catholic,[17] Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba. Career as a scientist Galileo, Kepler and theories of tides Related:  Galilée

Daniel Best Daniel Best (born March 20, 1838 in Tuscarawas County, Ohio) was an American adventurer, inventor, and entrepreneur known for pioneering agriculture machinery and heavy machinery. Early years[edit] In 1839, Daniel Best’s father, John, moved the family to Missouri. In 1847, the family moved again to Lee County, Iowa, here they took up farming and raised stock. Life in the West[edit] As was the case for many other Americans of his day, the West changed Daniel Best’s life — but not how he expected. While working in his sawmill, an accident occurred that changed the course of his life; he lost the first three fingers of his left hand. Inventions[edit] Over a period of forty-three years, Daniel Best received 41 patents, ranging from an improved washing machine to combine harvesters. While continuing to produce grain cleaners Daniel began experimenting with the idea of combining grain harvesting, threshing and cleaning in one machine. Traction engine[edit] Retirement[edit] In 1925, the C.

Galilée et l'astronomie : ses observations Les phases de la Lune, ses montagnes Lorsque, pour la première fois, Galilée regarde la Lune à travers sa lunette, il n'en croit pas ses yeux. Il voit qu'elle a des montagnes, des cratères et des vallées. Il fait des dessins de ce qu'il voit et s'aperçoit que les ombres se déplacent. <• Premières observations de Galilée à l'aide de sa lunette : les phases de la Lune (pleine Lune, premier quartier, etc). Sur la Lune comme ici (en Cappadoce, Turquie),•> les montagnes se cachent les unes les autres. Malgré ses observations et ses calculs, beaucoup d'astronomes de son temps ne veulent pas croire à l'existence de montagnes sur la Lune car, disent-ils, s'il y en avait, on devrait les voir sur le limbe (le bord). Les taches du soleil Grâce à la lunette astronomique, Galilée et trois autres observateurs découvrent en 1611 des taches sur Soleil. Image du soleil par projection. 1- « des a priori métaphysiques » : des idées non fondées sur l'observation scientifique Attention ! Vénus et ses phases

René Descartes Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well. His best known philosophical statement is "Cogito ergo sum" (French: Je pense, donc je suis; I think, therefore I am), found in part IV of Discourse on the Method (1637 – written in French but with inclusion of "Cogito ergo sum") and §7 of part I of Principles of Philosophy (1644 – written in Latin). Early life[edit] Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now Descartes), Indre-et-Loire, France. In his book, Discourse On The Method, he says "I entirely abandoned the study of letters. Visions[edit] According to Adrien Baillet, on the night of 10–11 November 1619 (St. Work[edit] Death[edit] In 1991 E.

Georg Ohm Georg Simon Ohm (German: [oːm]; 16 March 1789 – 6 July 1854) was a German physicist and mathematician. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the new electrochemical cell, invented by Italian scientist Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm found that there is a direct proportionality between the potential difference (voltage) applied across a conductor and the resultant electric current. This relationship is known as Ohm's law. Biography[edit] Early years[edit] Georg Simon Ohm was born into a Protestant family in Erlangen, Brandenburg-Bayreuth (then a part of the Holy Roman Empire), son to Johann Wolfgang Ohm, a locksmith and Maria Elizabeth Beck, the daughter of a tailor in Erlangen. From early childhood, Georg and Martin were taught by their father who brought them to a high standard in mathematics, physics, chemistry and philosophy. Life in university[edit] Teaching career[edit] Ohm died in Munich in 1854, and is buried in the Alter Südfriedhof.

Galileo Astronomy Group:Venus Purpose: The astronomy group for Hist 333 is composed of Rebecca Brown, Travis Dunn, Karl Haushalter, and Jessica Williams. We observed the planet Venus to complement our observations of the Moon, Jupiter and its satellites, Orion and the Pleiades. We planned to examine the planet with a telescope similar to Galileo's and compare our results with what he observed in the fall of 1610. Background: In the year 1610 Galileo published his Sidereus Nuncius, a record of his observation of the Moon and Jupiter in 1609 and 1610. The two systems make different predictions for the progression of the phases of Venus (seen below, Van Helden, p.108). Expectations: This is how the size and phase of Venus will change over our observing window this semester. Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 100% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 110% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 120% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 135% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 160% Results: Further work:

Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (/ˈnjuːtən/;[8] 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/7[1]) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Life Early life Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Middle years Mathematics Optics

Gustav Kirchhoff Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects. Life and work[edit] Gustav Kirchhoff was born in Königsberg, East Prussia, the son of Friedrich Kirchhoff, a lawyer, and Johanna Henriette Wittke. He graduated from the Albertus University of Königsberg in 1847 where he attended the mathematico-physical seminar directed by Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi,[1] Franz Ernst Neumann and Friedrich Julius Richelot. He married Clara Richelot, the daughter of his mathematics professor Richelot. In the same year, they moved to Berlin, where he stayed until he received a professorship at Breslau. Kirchhoff formulated his circuit laws, which are now ubiquitous in electrical engineering, in 1845, while still a student. Leopold Kronecker is buried in the same cemetery. Kirchhoff's three laws of spectroscopy[edit] See also[edit]

Les observations de Galilée : Vénus, le soleil et la Voie lactée (2/2) Avec Thomas Widemann, Véronique Dehant, Jean-Marie Malherbe et Catherine Turon Pour le 400ème anniversaire de la première utilisation de la lunette astronomique par Galilée, le bureau des longitudes a invité des scientifiques renommés à parler de la quête galiléenne du système solaire à la Voie lactée, le 17 juin 2009 à l’Institut de France. Cette émission est la seconde partie de la retransmission des conférences. Galilée, rappelons le, est un physicien et astronome du XVII ème siècle, mondialement connu pour avoir conçu sa première lunette astronomique en 1609. Lunettes qui permettront, par la suite, de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de notre galaxie. Découverte de Vénus Galilée fut tout d'abord le premier à observer la planète Vénus avec sa lunette. Des premières observations du soleil au microsatellite Picard Observation de la Voie lactée Enfin, Catherine Turon termine sur la Voie(...) © Canal Académie - Tous droits réservés (moyenne de 4,5 pour un total de 2 votes) Déjà abonné ?

Other achievements Martinus Beijerinck Martinus Beijerinck in the 1880s or 1890s The Laboratory of Microbiology in Delft, where Beijerinck worked from 1897 to 1921. Martinus Willem Beijerinck (March 16, 1851 – January 1, 1931) was a Dutch microbiologist and botanist. Born in Amsterdam, Beijerinck studied at the Technical School of Delft, where he was awarded the degree of Chemical Engineer in 1872. At the time, Delft, then a Polytechnic, did not have the right to confer doctorates, so Leiden did this for them. He is considered one of the founders of virology.[2][3][4][5] In 1898, he published results on the filtration experiments demonstrating that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by an infectious agent smaller than a bacterium.[6] Beijerinck also discovered nitrogen fixation,[8] the process by which diatomic nitrogen gas is converted to ammonium ions and becomes available to plants. Beijerinck discovered the phenomenon of bacterial sulfate reduction, a form of anaerobic respiration. Beijerinck was a socially eccentric figure.

Les instruments d'observation de Galilée La lunette astronomique Au mois de juin 1609, un français, Jacques Badouvert, informe Galilée de la propriété étonnante d'un instrument d'optique fait d'un tube gainé de cuir dans lequel se trouvent deux lentilles, l’une convergente, l'autre divergente : l'appareil permet de percevoir les objets lointains comme s'ils étaient proches. On le vend en France comme jouet. C’est une sorte de longue vue ou « lunette », inventée par un lunetier hollandais. L'hypothèse la plus vraisemblable situe l'évènement en 1600, dans la boutique d'un obscur opticien hollandais de Middelburg, du nom de Hans Lippershey. Galilée a l’idée de s’en servir pour observer le ciel. A partir de novembre 1609 Galilée se sert régulièrement de la lunette pour regarder le ciel. La première lunette astronomique, encore appelée lunette de Galilée, était née. Schématisation de la lunette de Galilée L'objet céleste AB très éloigné (planète ou étoile), observé avec la lunette, est considéré en optique comme étant à l'infini.

Early thermodynamics Albert Einstein Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐrt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn]; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist. Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[4][5] He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[3][6]:274 Einstein is best known in popular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation").[7] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "services to theoretical physics", in particular his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect, a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory.[8] Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. Life Early life and education Death

Galilée : sa vie La jeunesse de Galilée Galileo Galilei, dit Galilée, est né à Pise, le 15 février 1564, la même année que Shakespeare. Il aura deux frères et quatre sœurs. Son père, un marchand qui descend d'une noblesse ruinée de Florence, est un théoricien de la musique. Recevant auprès de son père une excellente éducation, le jeune Galilée montre du goût pour la musique, le dessin et aussi une remarquable habileté manuelle dans la construction d'instruments. Déjà, il entreprend seul des études sur le centre de gravité de certains solides, sur le déplacement d'un point d'une roue, ce qui le conduira à la découverte de la cycloïde1 dont il se servira plus tard pour dessiner les arches des ponts. 1- une cycloïde : schéma du mouvement de la valve d’une roue de bicyclette. En 1581, son père l'inscrit à l'université de Pise pour y apprendre la médecine. L'Italie de Galilée. A cette époque, l'Italie n'a pas encore son unité actuelle. Galilée, professeur d'Université Le premier “avertissement” (1616)