background preloader

Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642), often known mononymously as Galileo, was an Italian physicist, mathematician, engineer, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy",[4] the "father of modern physics",[5][6] the "father of science",[6][7] and "the father of modern science".[8] Early life Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Duchy of Florence), Italy, in 1564,[15] the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati. Although a genuinely pious Roman Catholic,[17] Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba. Career as a scientist Galileo, Kepler and theories of tides Related:  Galilée

Galilée et l'astronomie : ses observations Les phases de la Lune, ses montagnes Lorsque, pour la première fois, Galilée regarde la Lune à travers sa lunette, il n'en croit pas ses yeux. Il voit qu'elle a des montagnes, des cratères et des vallées. Il fait des dessins de ce qu'il voit et s'aperçoit que les ombres se déplacent. <• Premières observations de Galilée à l'aide de sa lunette : les phases de la Lune (pleine Lune, premier quartier, etc). Sur la Lune comme ici (en Cappadoce, Turquie),•> les montagnes se cachent les unes les autres. Malgré ses observations et ses calculs, beaucoup d'astronomes de son temps ne veulent pas croire à l'existence de montagnes sur la Lune car, disent-ils, s'il y en avait, on devrait les voir sur le limbe (le bord). Les taches du soleil Grâce à la lunette astronomique, Galilée et trois autres observateurs découvrent en 1611 des taches sur Soleil. Image du soleil par projection. 1- « des a priori métaphysiques » : des idées non fondées sur l'observation scientifique Attention ! Vénus et ses phases

Annunciation (Leonardo) This is a painting of the Biblical subject of the Annunciation, by the Italian Renaissance artists Leonardo da Vinci and Andrea del Verrocchio, dating from circa 1472–1475[1] and housed in the Uffizi gallery of Florence, Italy. The subject matter is drawn from the Gospel of Luke, Chapter 1, verses 26-39 and depicts the angel Gabriel, sent by God to announce to a virgin, Mary, that she would miraculously conceive and give birth to a son, to be named Jesus, and to be called "the Son of God" whose reign would never end. The subject was very popular for artworks and had been depicted many times in the art of Florence, including several examples by the Early Renaissance painter Fra Angelico. The details of it commission and its early history remain obscure.[2] The angel holds a Madonna lily, a symbol of Mary's virginity and of the city of Florence. Verrocchio used lead-based paint and heavy brush strokes. Bible and the Virgin's hand

Alhazen In medieval Europe, he was honored as Ptolemaeus Secundus ("Ptolemy the Second")[10] or simply called "The Physicist".[11] He is also sometimes called al-Basri (Arabic: البصري) after Basra, his birthplace.[12] He spent most of his life close to the court of the Caliphate in Cairo and earned his living authoring various treatises and tutoring members of the nobilities.[13] Overview[edit] Biography[edit] Born c. 965 in Basra, which was then part of the Buyid emirate,[1] to an Arab family.[14][15] Legacy[edit] Front page of the Opticae Thesaurus, which included the first printed Latin translation of Alhazen's Book of Optics. Alhazen made significant contributions to optics, number theory, geometry, astronomy and natural philosophy. One of the major scientific anniversaries that will be celebrated during the 2015 International Year of Light is: the works on optics by Ibn Al-Haytham (1015). Book of Optics[edit] Main article: Book of Optics Theory of vision[edit] Alhazen on Iraqi 10 dinars G. A.

Galileo Astronomy Group:Venus Purpose: The astronomy group for Hist 333 is composed of Rebecca Brown, Travis Dunn, Karl Haushalter, and Jessica Williams. We observed the planet Venus to complement our observations of the Moon, Jupiter and its satellites, Orion and the Pleiades. We planned to examine the planet with a telescope similar to Galileo's and compare our results with what he observed in the fall of 1610. Background: In the year 1610 Galileo published his Sidereus Nuncius, a record of his observation of the Moon and Jupiter in 1609 and 1610. The two systems make different predictions for the progression of the phases of Venus (seen below, Van Helden, p.108). Expectations: This is how the size and phase of Venus will change over our observing window this semester. Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 100% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 110% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 120% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 135% Linear magnification compared to Jan. 30: 160% Results: Further work:

Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo is revered for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised flying machines, an armoured vehicle, concentrated solar power, an adding machine,[7] and the double hull, also outlining a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime,[nb 2] but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded. Life Childhood, 1452–1466 Leonardo's earliest known drawing, the Arno Valley (1473), Uffizi Leonardo's early life has been the subject of historical conjecture.[15] Vasari, the 16th-century biographer of Renaissance painters, tells of how a local peasant made himself a round shield and requested that Ser Piero have it painted for him. Verrocchio's workshop, 1466–1476 Professional life, 1476–1513 Leonardo da Vinci's very accurate map of Imola, created for Cesare Borgia Old age, 1513–1519 Painting

Isaac Newton Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (/ˈnjuːtən/;[8] 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/7[1]) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for classical mechanics. Newton made seminal contributions to optics, and he shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development of calculus. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and the second Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Life Early life Isaac Newton (Bolton, Sarah K. Middle years Mathematics Optics

Les observations de Galilée : Vénus, le soleil et la Voie lactée (2/2) Avec Thomas Widemann, Véronique Dehant, Jean-Marie Malherbe et Catherine Turon Pour le 400ème anniversaire de la première utilisation de la lunette astronomique par Galilée, le bureau des longitudes a invité des scientifiques renommés à parler de la quête galiléenne du système solaire à la Voie lactée, le 17 juin 2009 à l’Institut de France. Cette émission est la seconde partie de la retransmission des conférences. Galilée, rappelons le, est un physicien et astronome du XVII ème siècle, mondialement connu pour avoir conçu sa première lunette astronomique en 1609. Lunettes qui permettront, par la suite, de mieux comprendre le fonctionnement de notre galaxie. Découverte de Vénus Galilée fut tout d'abord le premier à observer la planète Vénus avec sa lunette. Des premières observations du soleil au microsatellite Picard Observation de la Voie lactée Enfin, Catherine Turon termine sur la Voie(...) © Canal Académie - Tous droits réservés (moyenne de 4,5 pour un total de 2 votes) Déjà abonné ?

David (Michelangelo) David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504, by the Italian artist Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, commonly known as Michelangelo. It is a 5.17-metre (17.0 ft)[1] marble statue of a standing male nude. The statue represents the Biblical hero David, a favoured subject in the art of Florence.[2] Originally commissioned as one of a series of statues of prophets to be positioned along the roofline of the east end of Florence Cathedral, the statue was placed instead in a public square, outside the Palazzo della Signoria, the seat of civic government in Florence, where it was unveiled on 8 September 1504. Because of the nature of the hero that it represented, it soon came to symbolize the defense of civil liberties embodied in the Florentine Republic, an independent city-state threatened on all sides by more powerful rival states and by the hegemony of the Medici family. David in the Accademia The eyes of David look towards Rome

James Clerk Maxwell James Clerk Maxwell FRS FRSE (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish[2][3] mathematical physicist.[4] His most notable achievement was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation, bringing together for the first time electricity, magnetism, and light as manifestations of the same phenomenon. Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics"[5] after the first one realised by Isaac Newton. With the publication of A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field in 1865, Maxwell demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space as waves moving at the speed of light. Maxwell helped develop the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, a statistical means of describing aspects of the kinetic theory of gases. His discoveries helped usher in the era of modern physics, laying the foundation for such fields as special relativity and quantum mechanics. Life[edit] Early life, 1831–39[edit] Education, 1839–47[edit]

Les instruments d'observation de Galilée La lunette astronomique Au mois de juin 1609, un français, Jacques Badouvert, informe Galilée de la propriété étonnante d'un instrument d'optique fait d'un tube gainé de cuir dans lequel se trouvent deux lentilles, l’une convergente, l'autre divergente : l'appareil permet de percevoir les objets lointains comme s'ils étaient proches. On le vend en France comme jouet. C’est une sorte de longue vue ou « lunette », inventée par un lunetier hollandais. L'hypothèse la plus vraisemblable situe l'évènement en 1600, dans la boutique d'un obscur opticien hollandais de Middelburg, du nom de Hans Lippershey. Galilée a l’idée de s’en servir pour observer le ciel. A partir de novembre 1609 Galilée se sert régulièrement de la lunette pour regarder le ciel. La première lunette astronomique, encore appelée lunette de Galilée, était née. Schématisation de la lunette de Galilée L'objet céleste AB très éloigné (planète ou étoile), observé avec la lunette, est considéré en optique comme étant à l'infini.

David (Donatello) The first version of David (1408–1409). Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. Height 191 cm. David is the name of two statues by Italian early Renaissance sculptor Donatello. The story of David and Goliath comes from 1 Samuel 17. Donatello was commissioned to carve a statue of David in 1408. The marble David is Donatello's earliest known important commission, and it is a work closely tied to tradition, giving few signs of the innovative approach to representation that the artist would develop as he matured. Donatello, David (1440s?) Donatello's bronze statue of David (circa 1440s) is famous as the first unsupported standing work of bronze cast during the Renaissance, and the first freestanding nude male sculpture made since antiquity. This piece was requested by the Medici family to be placed in the center of the courtyard of the Medici Palace in Florence. Left side of Donatello's David Back view of the legs of the David in the Bargello Museum, Florence

Albert Einstein Albert Einstein (/ˈælbərt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn/; German: [ˈalbɐrt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn]; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist. Einstein's work is also known for its influence on the philosophy of science.[4][5] He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[3][6]:274 Einstein is best known in popular culture for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation").[7] He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his "services to theoretical physics", in particular his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect, a pivotal step in the evolution of quantum theory.[8] Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. Life Early life and education Death

Galilée : sa vie La jeunesse de Galilée Galileo Galilei, dit Galilée, est né à Pise, le 15 février 1564, la même année que Shakespeare. Il aura deux frères et quatre sœurs. Son père, un marchand qui descend d'une noblesse ruinée de Florence, est un théoricien de la musique. Recevant auprès de son père une excellente éducation, le jeune Galilée montre du goût pour la musique, le dessin et aussi une remarquable habileté manuelle dans la construction d'instruments. Déjà, il entreprend seul des études sur le centre de gravité de certains solides, sur le déplacement d'un point d'une roue, ce qui le conduira à la découverte de la cycloïde1 dont il se servira plus tard pour dessiner les arches des ponts. 1- une cycloïde : schéma du mouvement de la valve d’une roue de bicyclette. En 1581, son père l'inscrit à l'université de Pise pour y apprendre la médecine. L'Italie de Galilée. A cette époque, l'Italie n'a pas encore son unité actuelle. Galilée, professeur d'Université Le premier “avertissement” (1616)

Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance . Renaissance . Leonardo The most famous artist in the world, Leonardo was nurtured by Lorenzo de'Medici. Botticelli, Michelangelo and da Vinci equalled unparalleled genius, now known as the “High Renaissance”. Leonardo was more than just an artist. It is argued that no man has ever studied more subjects or generated more ideas, than Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo the artist Born in 1450, the son of a lawyer and his peasant lover, Leonardo, like thousands of talented boys, was drawn to Florence. Leonardo was experimenting with oils, a radical technique previously known only in the Northern Europe. By 1481, Leonardo had outgrown Florence. Leonardo returned to Florence in 1504, and was drawn into a competition with the upstart, Michelangelo. Italy soon descended into chaos, with warring armies carving their way from Milan to Rome. Leonardo the scientist To be the ultimate Renaisssance man, one had to master every discipline, from natural science, engineering and architecture through to philosophy and art.

Related: