Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tend to be much less vivid or memorable. The length of a dream can vary; they may last for a few seconds, or approximately 20–30 minutes. People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase. Opinions about the meaning of dreams have varied and shifted through time and culture. Sigmund Freud, who developed the discipline of psychoanalysis, wrote extensively about dream theories and their interpretations in the early 1900s. He explained dreams as manifestations of our deepest desires and anxieties, often relating to repressed childhood memories or obsessions. Cultural meaning Ancient history Classical history In Abrahamic religions Iain R.
Related: mental disorders in Ancient Egypt and Messoptamia
Retreat (spiritual)The meaning of a spiritual retreat can be different for different religious communities. Spiritual Retreats are an integral part of many Hindu, Buddhist, Christian and Sufi (Islamic) communities. In Hinduism and Buddhism, Meditative Retreats are seen by some as integral for reconnection to one's self. Retreats are also popular in Christian churches, and were established in today's form by St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), in his Spiritual Exercises. Meditative retreats are an important practice in Sufism, the mystical path of Islam. A retreat can either be a time of solitude or a community experience. Spiritual retreats allow time for reflection, prayer, or meditation. The Christian retreat can be defined in the most simplest of terms as a definite time (from a few hours in length to a month) spent away from one's normal life for the purpose of reconnecting, usually in prayer, with God. Class at a Yoga-retreat in India Jump up ^ Ibn Arabi; Rabia Terry Harris (transl.) (1981).
ABC ScienceHot tags Weather Climate Change Planets and Asteroids Archaeology Fossils Editor's choice Sunday, 15 January 2017 RN Offtrack Counting birds to save the Murray-Darling Friday, 18 November 2016 Professor Richard Kingsford has spent much of his life counting birds: a critical body of work that shows Australia's rivers are under threat. Great Moments in Science The earworms you can't get out of your head Tuesday, 29 November 2016If you've ever had a song stuck in your head, you'll know it's annoying. Photos Incredible inner space Venture into the micro world of human anatomy and animals with teeth reinforced with iron, scales that reflect light and velvet 'fingers' on their skin captured by scientists from the Australian Microscopy and Microanalysis Research Facility. More galleries Science Quizzes Aussie birds quiz Can you tell the difference between a cuckoo and a cockatoo, or a peregrine and a penguin? Chemistry quiz Is your chemistry knowledge as light as helium or as heavy as plutonium?
Fred Alan WolfFred Alan Wolf (born December 3, 1934) is an American theoretical physicist specializing in quantum physics and the relationship between physics and consciousness. He is a former physics professor at San Diego State University, and has helped to popularize science on the Discovery Channel. He is the author of a number of books about physics, including Taking the Quantum Leap (1981), The Dreaming Universe (1994), Mind into Matter (2000), and Time Loops and Space Twists (2011). Wolf was a member in the 1970s, with Jack Sarfatti and others, of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Fundamental Fysiks Group founded in May 1975 by Elizabeth Rauscher and George Weissmann. His theories about the interrelation of consciousness and quantum physics were described by Newsweek in 2007 as "on the fringes of mainstream science. Biography Wolf's interest in physics began as a child when he viewed a newsreel depicting the world's first atomic explosion. Works Books Films Audio Dr. Notes
Magic (paranormal)Magic or sorcery is an attempt to understand, experience and influence the world using rituals, symbols, actions, gestures and language. Modern Western magicians generally state magic's primary purpose to be personal spiritual growth. Modern theories of magic may see it as the result of a universal sympathy where some act can produce a result somewhere else, or as a collaboration with spirits who cause the effect. The belief in and the practice of magic has been present since the earliest human cultures and continues to have an important religious and medicinal role in many cultures today. Magic is often viewed with suspicion by the wider community, and is sometimes practiced in isolation and secrecy. The word "magic" derives via Latin magicus from the Greek adjective magikos (μαγικός) used in reference to the "magical" arts of the Persian Magicians (Greek: magoi, singular mágos, μάγος), the Zoroastrian astrologer priests of the ancient Persian Empire.
Cool Science FactsHiggs bosonThe Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of six physicists who, in 1964, proposed the mechanism that suggested the existence of such a particle. Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 each independently developed different parts of it. In mainstream media the Higgs boson has often been called the "God particle", from a 1993 book on the topic; the nickname is strongly disliked by many physicists, including Higgs, who regard it as inappropriate sensationalism. In 2013 two of the original researchers, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work and prediction (Englert's co-researcher Robert Brout had died in 2011). A non-technical summary "Higgs" terminology Overview If this field did exist, this would be a monumental discovery for science and human knowledge, and is expected to open doorways to new knowledge in many fields. History
MelancholiaIn a modern context, "melancholy" applies only to the mental or emotional symptoms of depression or despondency; historically, "melancholia" could be physical as well as mental, and melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause rather than by their properties. History Hippocrates is considered the first physician to describe melancholia or depression, clinically. The name "melancholia" comes from the old medical belief of the four humors: disease or ailment being caused by an imbalance in one or other of the four basic bodily liquids, or humors. Personality types were similarly determined by the dominant humor in a particular person. According to Hippocrates, melancholia was caused by an excess of black bile, hence the name, which means 'black bile', from Ancient Greek μέλας (melas), "dark, black", and χολή (kholé), "bile"; a person whose constitution tended to have a preponderance of black bile had a melancholic disposition. See also
PharmacognosyPharmacognosy is the study of medicines derived from natural sources. The American Society of Pharmacognosy defines pharmacognosy as "the study of the physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of drugs, drug substances or potential drugs or drug substances of natural origin as well as the search for new drugs from natural sources." It is also defined as the study of crude drugs. Introduction The word "pharmacognosy" is derived from the Greek words φάρμακον pharmakon (drug), and γνῶσις gnosis (knowledge). Originally—during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century—"pharmacognosy" was used to define the branch of medicine or commodity sciences (Warenkunde in German) which deals with drugs in their crude, or unprepared, form. As late as the beginning of the 20th century, the subject had developed mainly on the botanical side, being particularly concerned with the description and identification of drugs both in their whole state and in powder form.
The sound of consciousness: neural underpinnings ... [J Neurosci. 2011HysteriaHysteria, in its colloquial use, describes unmanageable emotional excesses. People who are "hysterical" often lose self-control due to an overwhelming fear that may be caused by events in one's past that involved some sort of severe conflict. The fear can be centered on a body part, or most commonly, on an imagined problem with that body part. Disease is a common complaint; see also body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis. Generally, modern medical professionals have given up the use of "hysteria" as a diagnostic category, replacing it with more precisely defined categories such as somatization disorder. History For at least two thousand years of European history until the late nineteenth century hysteria referred to a medical condition thought to be particular to women and caused by disturbances of the uterus (from the Greek ὑστέρα hystera "uterus"), such as when a newborn child emerges from the birth canal. Current theories and practices See also