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Ada Lovelace

Ada Lovelace
Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron and now commonly known as Ada Lovelace, was an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine. Because of this, she is often described as the world's first computer programmer.[1][2][3] Ada described her approach as "poetical science" and herself as an "Analyst (& Metaphysician)". As a young adult, her mathematical talents led her to an ongoing working relationship and friendship with fellow British mathematician Charles Babbage, and in particular Babbage's work on the Analytical Engine. Biography[edit] Childhood[edit] Ada, aged four On 16 January 1816, Annabella, at George's behest, left for her parents' home at Kirkby Mallory taking one-month-old Ada with her. Adult years[edit] Related:  WiKi

Are the streets of Washington, D.C. supposed to form a pentagram? Actual Mason here (and current Master of a Lodge): I'm going to have to go ahead and assume that you aren't a Freemason yourself. To say that today "it's not really Freemasonry" is rather ignorant. Sure, we don't get together every month and figure out how to take over the government, but the core values we practice everyday and pass on to newer Masons hearken back to why the fraternity was created in the first place. A good deal of the original founding fathers of the US were Masons, and one of their primary goals was to create a secular society where personal liberty and freedom were paramount - Freemasonry strives for those things; politics and religion are taboo topics at meetings, and equality is our most important pursuit. If I suggest that next time you bash modern Freemasons, you look into it a bit before you might be surprised. If you're misinformed then everything looks like a theory. Haha, I see what you did there.

Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/ TEWR-ing; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, pioneering computer scientist, mathematical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer.[2][3][4] Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.[5] During World War II, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre. For a time he led Hut 8, the section responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. After the war, he worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he designed the ACE, among the first designs for a stored-program computer. Early life and career[edit] Cryptanalysis[edit]

The Barber of Seville Rossini's Barber has proven to be one of the greatest masterpieces of comedy within music, and has been described as the opera buffa of all "opere buffe". Even after two hundred years, its popularity on the modern opera stage attests to that greatness.[2] Composition history[edit] Rossini's opera recounts the first of the plays from the Figaro trilogy, by French playwright Pierre Beaumarchais, while Mozart's opera Le nozze di Figaro, composed 30 years earlier in 1786, is based on the second part of the Beaumarchais trilogy. The first Beaumarchais play was originally conceived as an opéra comique, but was rejected as such by the Comédie-Italienne.[3] The play as it is now known was premiered in 1775 by the Comédie-Française at the Tuileries Palace in Paris.[4] Rossini was well known for being remarkably productive, completing an average of two operas per year for 19 years, and in some years writing as many as four. Performance history[edit] Roles[edit] Figaro Synopsis[edit] Act 1[edit] Notes

Top 5 Misconceptions About Columbus | Christopher Columbus & Intrepid Explorers | Columbus Day | Flat-Earth Myth & Who Discovered the Americas Updated on Oct. 11, at 3:34 p.m. ET Monday is Columbus Day, time to buy appliances on sale and contemplate other things that have nothing to do with Christopher Columbus. So much of what we say about Columbus is either wholly untrue or greatly exaggerated. Here are a few of the top offenders. 1. If he did, he was about 2,000 years too late. Columbus, a self-taught man, greatly underestimated the Earth's circumference. The Columbus flat-earth myth perhaps originated with Washington Irving's 1828 biography of Columbus; there's no mention of this before that. 2. Yes, let's ignore the fact that millions of humans already inhabited this land later to be called the Americas, having discovered it millennia before. What Columbus "discovered" was the Bahamas archipelago and then the island later named Hispaniola, now split into Haiti and the Dominican Republic. So why does the United States celebrate the guy who thought he found a nifty new route to Asia and the lands described by Marco Polo? 3.

Ted Nelson Biography[edit] Nelson is the son of Emmy Award-winning director Ralph Nelson and the Academy Award-winning actress Celeste Holm.[1] His parents' marriage was brief and he was mostly raised by his grandparents, first in Chicago and later in Greenwich Village.[2] Nelson earned a BA from Swarthmore College in 1959. During college and graduate school, he envisioned a computer-based writing system that would provide a lasting repository for the world's knowledge and also permit greater flexibility of drawing connections between ideas. Xanadu[edit] Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960 with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface. Nelson has stated that some aspects of his vision are being fulfilled by Tim Berners-Lee's invention of the World Wide Web, but he dislikes the World Wide Web, XML and all embedded markup – regarding Berners-Lee's work as a gross over-simplification of his original vision: Other projects[edit] ZigZag[edit] Influence and recognition[edit]

Gioachino Rossini Gioachino Rossini, photographed by Étienne Carjat, 1865 Gioachino Antonio Rossini[1][2] (Italian: [d͡ʒoaˈkiːno anˈtɔːnjo rosˈsiːni]; 29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces. Until his retirement in 1829, Rossini had been the most popular opera composer in history.[3] Biography[edit] Give me the laundress' bill and I will set to music even that. Early life[edit] Gioachino Antonio Rossini was born into a family of musicians in Pesaro, a town on the Adriatic coast of Italy which was then part of the Papal States. Rossini's father was sympathetic to the French Revolution and welcomed Napoleon's troops when they arrived in northern Italy. He remained at Bologna in the care of a pork butcher while his father played the horn in the orchestras of the theatres at which his wife sang. Education[edit] He was eventually taken from Prinetti and apprenticed to a blacksmith.

The Origin of Blue Jeans | Around The Mall An early pair of Levi Strauss & Co.'s "Duck Trousers." Photo courtesy American History Museum On the 109th anniversary of Levi Strauss’ death, his chief product—blue jeans—have become a $91 billion per year industry, an icon of American culture, and quite possibly the world’s most popular article of clothing. His name, more than any other, evokes the tough denim fabric and heavy stitching of America’s favorite pair of pants. It all started in 1871, when tailor Jacob Davis of Reno, Nevada, had a problem. As local miners snapped up the overalls he made with rivet-strengthened stress points and durable “duck cloth,” a type of canvas, Davis realized he needed to protect his idea. Davis soon moved to San Francisco, and wide scale production of riveted pants started for the first time. A close-up of the Smithsonian's original Levi Strauss trousers. Business for the company boomed as pants flew off the shelves. Essential to the Levi’s name was the integrity and ruggedness of the trousers.

Lev Manovich Lev Manovich is an author of books on new media theory, professor in Computer Science program at City University of New York, Graduate Center, U.S. and visiting professor European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. Manovich's research and teaching focuses on digital humanities, new media art and theory, and software studies[1] His best known book is The Language of New Media, which has been widely reviewed and translated into eight languages. According to two reviewers, this book offers "the first rigorous and far-reaching theorization of the subject"[2] and "it places new media within the most suggestive and broad ranging media history since Marshall McLuhan".[3] Manovich's new book Software Takes Command was published in 2013 by Bloomsbury and also released under a Creative Commons license. Biography[edit] Manovich has been working with computer media as an artist, computer animator, designer, and programmer since 1984. Manovich has been teaching new media art since 1992.

Christopher Nolan Christopher Jonathan James Nolan (/ˈnoʊlən/; born 30 July 1970)[1] is an British-American film director, screenwriter, and producer. He has created several of the most critically and commercially successful films of the early 21st century. His nine films have grossed over $4.2 billion worldwide and garnered a total of 26 Oscar nominations and seven awards. Early life[edit] Nolan was born in London. His British father, Brendan James Nolan, was an advertising executive,[3] and his American mother, Christina (née Jensen), worked as a flight attendant and English teacher.[4][5][6] His childhood was split between London and Chicago, and he has both British and American citizenship.[7][8] He has an older brother, Matthew, and a younger brother, Jonathan.[9] Nolan began making films at age seven, borrowing his father's Super 8 camera and shooting short films with his action figures.[10][11] From the age of 11, he aspired to be a professional filmmaker.[9] Career[edit] 1990s[edit] 2000s[edit]

13 Halloween Superstitions & Traditions Explained | Black Cats & Witches | Jack-o'-Lanterns & Trick-or-Treating | History of Halloween Remy Melina, LiveScience Staff Writer | October 29, 2011 08:07am ET Credit: Monkey Business Images | shutterstock Halloween may seem like it's all about costumes and candy, but the holiday — which is relatively new to America, having only become popular in the early 1900s — has its roots in pagan beliefs. Dating back about 2,000 years, Halloween marked the Celtic New Year and was originally called Samhain, which translates to "summer's end" in Gaelic. Some Halloween traditions, such as carving Jack-o'-lanterns, are based on Irish folklore and have been carried on throughout the centuries, while others, such as candy corn, are more modern Halloween additions. Read on to find out the meaning behind 13 spooky Halloween staples, including spiders, witches and trick-or-treating.

John Maeda John Maeda (born 1966 in Seattle, Washington) is a Japanese-American graphic designer, computer scientist, academic, and author. His work in design, technology and leadership explores the area where the fields merge. He was the President of the Rhode Island School of Design from 2008 to 2013.[1] [2] He is currently a Design Partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.[3] Maeda was originally a software engineering student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, when he became fascinated with the work of Paul Rand and Muriel Cooper. Cooper was a director of MIT's Visual Language Workshop. After completing his bachelors and masters degrees at MIT, Maeda studied in Japan at Tsukuba University's Institute of Art and Design to complete his Ph.D. in design. At RISD, Maeda is leading the movement to transform STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) to STEAM by adding Art. Bibliography[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi ( Modi was a key strategist for the BJP in the successful 1995 and 1998 Gujarat state election campaigns, and was a major campaign figure in the 2009 general elections, eventually won by the Indian National Congress-led UPA.[1] He first became chief minister of Gujarat in October 2001 after the resignation of his predecessor, Keshubhai Patel, and following the defeat of BJP in the by-elections. In July 2007, he became the longest-serving Chief Minister in Gujarat's history, at which point he had been in power for 2,063 days continuously. He is currently serving his fourth consecutive term as Chief Minister. Early life and education Modi with his mother on his 63rd birthday on 17 September 2013. Modi was born on 17 September 1950 to a family of grocers in Vadnagar in Mehsana district of what was then Bombay State (present-day Gujarat), India.[13] He was the third of six children born to Damodardas Mulchand Modi and his wife, Heeraben. Early political career

The Axis Plan To Invade America In 1942 Taken from the March 2, 1942 issue of Life, these diagrams and maps detailed how the Axis powers could invade North America following Pearl Harbor. The Axis Plan was imagined in 6 Plans (Plan 1 is above): Plan 2 of the Axis plan to invade America has the Japanese invading the West Coast of America via Pearl Harbor and then California. Plan 3 of of the Axis plan to invade America has the Japanese invading North America through the Panama Canal, then proceeding up through Mexico to the West Coast of the United States.