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History of the Internet

History of the Internet
The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of packet networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, Great Britain, and France. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s for packet network systems, including the development of the ARPANET (which would become the first network to use the Internet Protocol.) The first message was sent over the ARPANET from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). Precursors The telegraph system is the first fully digital communication system. Three terminals and an ARPA A pioneer in the call for a global network, J. Packet switching Networks that led to the Internet Related:  Internet's Cultural History

Main Page - CS50 Manual Cyberspace Cyberspace is "the notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs."[1] The word became popular in the 1990s when the uses of the internet, networking, and digital communication were all growing dramatically and the term "cyberspace" was able to represent the many new ideas and phenomena that were emerging.[2] The parent term of cyberspace is "cybernetics", derived from the Ancient Greek κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder), a word introduced by Norbert Wiener for his pioneering work in electronic communication and control science. As a social experience, individuals can interact, exchange ideas, share information, provide social support, conduct business, direct actions, create artistic media, play games, engage in political discussion, and so on, using this global network. According to Chip Morningstar and F. Origins of the term[edit] Cyberspace. [edit] In this silent world, all conversation is typed. Virtual environments[edit] [edit]

Vint Cerf Vinton Gray "Vint" Cerf[1] (/ˈsɜrf/; born June 23, 1943) is an American computer scientist, who is recognized as one of[5] "the fathers of the Internet",[6] sharing this title with American computer scientist Bob Kahn.[7][8] His contributions have been acknowledged and lauded, repeatedly, with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology,[1] the Turing Award,[9] the Presidential Medal of Freedom,[10] and membership in the National Academy of Engineering. In the early days, Cerf was a program manager for the United States Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) funding various groups to develop TCP/IP technology. When the Internet began to transition to a commercial opportunity during the late 1980s,[citation needed] Cerf moved to MCI where he was instrumental in the development of the first commercial email system (MCI Mail) connected to the Internet. Cerf was instrumental in the funding and formation of ICANN from the start.

Hatsune Miku Hatsune Miku (初音ミク?), sometimes referred to as Miku Hatsune, is a humanoid persona voiced by a singing synthesizer application developed by Crypton Future Media, headquartered in Sapporo, Japan. She uses Yamaha Corporation's Vocaloid 2 and Vocaloid 3 singing synthesizing technologies. She also uses Crypton Future Media's Piapro Studio, a singing synthesizer VSTi Plugin. The name of the character comes from merging the Japanese words for first (初, hatsu?) Development[edit] Hatsune Miku was developed by Crypton Future Media, using Yamaha's Vocaloid 2 and Vocaloid 3. Crypton released the first of their "Character Vocal Series", Hatsune Miku, on August 31, 2007. Additional software[edit] To aid in the production of 3D animations, the program MikuMikuDance was developed as an independent program. An English version of Hatsune Miku was announced in 2011, and was originally to be released by the end of 2012. Marketing[edit] Sales[edit] Characteristics[edit] Cultural impact[edit] Featured music[edit]

Brief History of the Internet - Internet Timeline We want your opinion: will the open Internet survive the next 10 years? Barry M. Leiner, Vinton G. Cerf, David D. Clark, Robert E. Kahn, Leonard Kleinrock, Daniel C. Introduction The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. This is intended to be a brief, necessarily cursory and incomplete history. In this paper,3 several of us involved in the development and evolution of the Internet share our views of its origins and history. The Internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the National (or Global or Galactic) Information Infrastructure. Origins of the Internet The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961 and the first book on the subject in 1964. The Initial Internetting Concepts Proving the Ideas

Event (computing) Event driven systems are typically used when there is some asynchronous external activity that needs to be handled by a program. For example, a user who presses a button on his mouse. An event driven system typically runs an event loop, that keeps waiting for such activities, e.g. input from devices or internal alarms. When one of these occur, it collects data about the event and fires it, i.e. it dispatches the event to the event handler software that will deal with it. A program can choose to ignore events, and there may be libraries to dispatch an event to multiple handlers that may be programmed to listen for a particular event. The data associated with an event at a minimum specifies what type of event it is, but may include other information such as when it occurred, who or what caused it to occur, and extra data provided by the event source to the handler about how the event should be processed. Events can also be used at instruction set level, where they complement interrupts.

Manuel Castells's Network Society | geof Castells is a professor of urban geography at Berkley. He has written a number of books and articles about geography, the city, and the information society, including a three-volume analysis of contemporary capitalism, titled The Information Age. Garnham (2004, p. 165) refers to this as “the most sophisticated version” of the theory of the information society. Castells' analysis involves economic, social, political, and cultural factors. The Network Society Castells (2000a; 2000b) claims that we are passing from the industrial age into the information age. According to Castells, power now rests in networks: “the logic of the network is more powerful than the powers of the network” (quoted in Weber, 2002, p. 104). Capital and Labor Castells distinguishes the terms “information” and “informational”. Despite the disappearance of capitalists and the proletariat, exploitation and differentiation remain. Flows vs. In opposition to the space of flows is the space of places. Conclusion Notes

Steve Crocker Steve Crocker in 2005 Steve Crocker Stephen D. Crocker (born October 15, 1944, in Pasadena, California) is the inventor of the Request for Comments series,[1] authoring the very first RFC[2] and many more.[3] He received his bachelor's degree (1968) and PhD (1977) from the University of California, Los Angeles.[4] Crocker is chair of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, ICANN.[5] Steve Crocker has worked in the Internet community since its inception. As a UCLA graduate student in the 1960s, he was part of the team that developed the protocols for the ARPANET which were the foundation for today's Internet.[6] For this work, Crocker was awarded the 2002 IEEE Internet Award.[7] While at UCLA Crocker taught an extension course on computer programming (for the IBM 7094 mainframe computer). Steve Crocker was instrumental in creating the ARPA "Network Working Group", which later was the context in which the IETF was created. References[edit] External links[edit]

Internet Engineering Task Force The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements. All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors. The IETF started out as an activity supported by the US federal government, but since 1993 it has operated as a standards development function under the auspices of the Internet Society, an international membership-based non-profit organization. Organization[edit] Rough consensus is the primary basis for decision making. The working groups are organized into areas by subject matter. In December 2005 the IETF Trust was established to manage the copyrighted materials produced by the IETF.[10] Meetings[edit] The first IETF meeting was attended by 21 U.S. The location for IETF meetings vary greatly. Operations[edit]

Reaction to the DEC Spam of 1978 Possibly the first spam ever was a message from a DEC marketing rep to every Arpanet address on the west coast, or at least the attempt at that. Below is the spam itself. After it you will find a sampling of some of the reaction it generated -- not unlike the reaction to spam today. Look for the celebrity spam-defender! (Of course that was decades ago.) Einar Stefferud, who was one of the recipients of the spam, provides this note of explanation: It was sent from SNDMSG which had limited space for To and CC and Subject fields. The sender is identified as Gary Thuerk, an aggressive DEC marketer who thought Arpanet users would find it cool that DEC had integrated Arpanet protocol support directly into the new DEC-20 and TOPS-20 OS. DEC was mostly an east coast company, and he had lots of contacts on the east coast to push the new Dec-20 to customers there. The engineer, Carl Gartley, was an early employee at DEC who had been called in to help with promoting the new Decsystem-20. Regards,

Thread (computing) A process with two threads of execution on a single processor On a single processor, multithreading is generally implemented by time-division multiplexing (as in multitasking): the processor switches between different threads. This context switching generally happens frequently enough that the user perceives the threads or tasks as running at the same time. Systems such as Windows NT and OS/2 are said to have "cheap" threads and "expensive" processes; in other operating systems there is not so great difference except the cost of address space switch which implies a TLB flush. These are mainly found in multi tasking operating systems. Another use of multithreading, applicable even for single-CPU systems, is the ability for an application to remain responsive to input. Operating systems schedule threads in one of two ways: Preemptive multitasking is generally considered the superior approach, as it allows the operating system to determine when a context switch should occur.

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