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History of the Internet

History of the Internet
The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of packet networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, Great Britain, and France. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s for packet network systems, including the development of the ARPANET (which would become the first network to use the Internet Protocol.) The first message was sent over the ARPANET from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). In 1982, the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) was introduced as the standard networking protocol on the ARPANET. Precursors The telegraph system is the first fully digital communication system. Packet switching

Related:  Internet's Cultural History

Hatsune Miku Hatsune Miku (初音ミク?), sometimes referred to as Miku Hatsune, is a humanoid persona voiced by a singing synthesizer application developed by Crypton Future Media, headquartered in Sapporo, Japan. She uses Yamaha Corporation's Vocaloid 2 and Vocaloid 3 singing synthesizing technologies. Event (computing) Event driven systems are typically used when there is some asynchronous external activity that needs to be handled by a program. For example, a user who presses a button on his mouse. An event driven system typically runs an event loop, that keeps waiting for such activities, e.g. input from devices or internal alarms. When one of these occur, it collects data about the event and fires it, i.e. it dispatches the event to the event handler software that will deal with it. A program can choose to ignore events, and there may be libraries to dispatch an event to multiple handlers that may be programmed to listen for a particular event.

Cyberspace Cyberspace is "the notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs."[1] The word became popular in the 1990s when the uses of the internet, networking, and digital communication were all growing dramatically and the term "cyberspace" was able to represent the many new ideas and phenomena that were emerging.[2] The parent term of cyberspace is "cybernetics", derived from the Ancient Greek κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder), a word introduced by Norbert Wiener for his pioneering work in electronic communication and control science.

National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan's Numerical Wind Tunnel-Computer Museum Under the leadership of Miyoshi Hajime, a senior manager at the laboratory at the time, the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (which merged with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in October 2003) developed the Numerical Wind Tunnel (NWT) parallel supercomputer system in partnership with Fujitsu. The NWT, which went into operation in January 1993, was truly groundbreaking. It was rated as the most powerful supercomputer site in the world by the TOP500 project from 1993 to 1995 and stayed at No. 3 in the world until November 1997. The NWT remained in use for nine years after its introduction.

What Is It Now available here in Finnish thanks to Oskari Laine, Helsinki, Finland. Mikä Computer Programming? And here is a Czech translation (provided by the team). Introduction Today, most people don't need to know how a computer works. Most people can simply turn on a computer or a mobile phone and point at some little graphical object on the display, click a button or swipe a finger or two, and the computer does something. Internet Engineering Task Force The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP). It is an open standards organization, with no formal membership or membership requirements. All participants and managers are volunteers, though their work is usually funded by their employers or sponsors.

Thread (computing) A process with two threads of execution on a single processor On a single processor, multithreading is generally implemented by time-division multiplexing (as in multitasking): the processor switches between different threads. This context switching generally happens frequently enough that the user perceives the threads or tasks as running at the same time. On a multiprocessor or multi-core system, threads can be truly concurrent, with every processor or core executing a separate thread simultaneously. Systems such as Windows NT and OS/2 are said to have "cheap" threads and "expensive" processes; in other operating systems there is not so great difference except the cost of address space switch which implies a TLB flush. These are mainly found in multi tasking operating systems.

Manuel Castells's Network Society Castells is a professor of urban geography at Berkley. He has written a number of books and articles about geography, the city, and the information society, including a three-volume analysis of contemporary capitalism, titled The Information Age. Garnham (2004, p. 165) refers to this as “the most sophisticated version” of the theory of the information society. Supercomputers solve riddle of congenital heart defects Both heredity and environment play a role in congenital heart defects, but exactly how various risk factors influence the development of the heart during pregnancy has been a mystery -- until now. With the aid of a supercomputer, an international, interdisciplinary research team has analysed millions of data points. This has allowed the scientists to show that a huge number of different risk factors -- for example in the form of genetic defects -- influence the molecular biology of heart development. "The discovery of a biological common denominator among many thousands of risk factors is an important step in health research, which in time can improve the prevention and diagnosis of congenital heart defects," explains Professor Lars Allan Larsen from the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen. Research results have recently been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Tailored treatment in future

Stormfront (website) Stormfront is a white nationalist,[2] white supremacist[3] and neo-Nazi[4] internet forum that was the internet's first major racial hate site.[5] White nationalist politician and activist David Duke, whose 1990 campaign for United States Senator in Louisiana was the impetus for the first iteration of Stormfront. The site received considerable attention in the United States, such as in, a 2000 CBS/HBO documentary television special which focused on the perceived threat of white nationalist and white supremacist organisations on the internet.[14] Narrated by Morris Dees of the Southern Poverty Law Center, it featured interviews with Black and his son Derek as well as other white nationalist groups and organisations. In 2012 Italian police blocked the website and arrested 4 people for allegedly inciting racial hatred.[19] The measure was taken after the publication of a blacklist of "prominent Jews and people who support Jews and immigrants" on the Italian section of the website.

Control flow Within an imperative programming language, a control flow statement is a statement whose execution results in a choice being made as to which of two or more paths should be followed. For non-strict functional languages, functions and language constructs exist to achieve the same result, but they are not necessarily called control flow statements. The kinds of control flow statements supported by different languages vary, but can be categorized by their effect: Primitives[edit]