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History of the Internet

History of the Internet
The history of the Internet begins with the development of electronic computers in the 1950s. Initial concepts of packet networking originated in several computer science laboratories in the United States, Great Britain, and France. The US Department of Defense awarded contracts as early as the 1960s for packet network systems, including the development of the ARPANET (which would become the first network to use the Internet Protocol.) The first message was sent over the ARPANET from computer science Professor Leonard Kleinrock's laboratory at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to the second network node at Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded the Computer Science Network (CSNET). Precursors The telegraph system is the first fully digital communication system. Three terminals and an ARPA A pioneer in the call for a global network, J. Packet switching Networks that led to the Internet

Cyberspace Cyberspace is "the notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs."[1] The word became popular in the 1990s when the uses of the internet, networking, and digital communication were all growing dramatically and the term "cyberspace" was able to represent the many new ideas and phenomena that were emerging.[2] The parent term of cyberspace is "cybernetics", derived from the Ancient Greek κυβερνήτης (kybernētēs, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder), a word introduced by Norbert Wiener for his pioneering work in electronic communication and control science. As a social experience, individuals can interact, exchange ideas, share information, provide social support, conduct business, direct actions, create artistic media, play games, engage in political discussion, and so on, using this global network. According to Chip Morningstar and F. Origins of the term[edit] Cyberspace. [edit] In this silent world, all conversation is typed. Virtual environments[edit] [edit]

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Dokumentarfilm er blevet cool, og danskerne er med helt fremme i feltet Scenen er fra begyndelsen surrealistisk sat i den biografaktuelle, skamroste og danskproducerede dokumentarfilm ’The Act of Killing’. I et syret, koloreret indonesisk landskab står en flok magtfulde indonesiske gangstere. Flere af de kraftige mænd er til lejligheden iklædt dametøj og vulgær læbestift. Forbryderne synger. Med hele kroppen og galgenhumoristisk uprøvede stemmebånd fremfører de en form for musical, de sammen med filmens amerikanske instruktør, Joshua Oppenheimer, har skrevet over de folkemord, de samme mennesker ustraffet begik på omkring en million kommunistiske, kinesiske og homoseksuelle landsmænd, da Indonesien efter et kup i 1960’erne blev et militærdiktatur. Er det en dokumentarfilm, når nu mange af scenerne er en slags ’genopførelser’? Ja, det er det utvivlsomt. Den berømte tyske instruktør Werner Herzog, som selv står for nogle af tidens mest barske, sære og tankevækkende dokumentarfilm, har sagt om ’The Act of Killing’: Folkemord. Det utrolige er sket. Munkeprotest.

History of maps and cartography ES 551 -- James S. Aber What is a Map? A map is a graphic representation or scale model of spatial concepts. Old maps provide much information about what was known in times past, as well as the philosophy and cultural basis of the map, which were often much different from modern cartography. Early Maps Cartography is the art and science of making maps. Greek and Roman cartography reached a culmination with Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy, about A.D. 85-165). Ptolemy's map of the world. Medieval Maps During the Medieval period, European maps were dominated by religious views. Vesconte's world map (1321).Hereford mappamundi (1290). al-Idrisi's world map (12th century). Renaissance Maps The invention of printing made maps much more widely available beginning in the 15th century. Printing with engraved copper plates appeared in the 16th century and continued to be the standard until photographic techniques were developed. Heart-shaped projection by Sylvanus (1511). Mercator's world map (1569).

Manuel Castells's Network Society | geof Castells is a professor of urban geography at Berkley. He has written a number of books and articles about geography, the city, and the information society, including a three-volume analysis of contemporary capitalism, titled The Information Age. Garnham (2004, p. 165) refers to this as “the most sophisticated version” of the theory of the information society. Castells' analysis involves economic, social, political, and cultural factors. The Network Society Castells (2000a; 2000b) claims that we are passing from the industrial age into the information age. According to Castells, power now rests in networks: “the logic of the network is more powerful than the powers of the network” (quoted in Weber, 2002, p. 104). Capital and Labor Castells distinguishes the terms “information” and “informational”. Despite the disappearance of capitalists and the proletariat, exploitation and differentiation remain. Flows vs. In opposition to the space of flows is the space of places. Conclusion Notes

What Is It Now available here in Finnish thanks to Oskari Laine, Helsinki, Finland. Mikä Computer Programming? And here is a Czech translation (provided by the team). Introduction Today, most people don't need to know how a computer works. But, since you are going to learn how to write computer programs, you need to know a little bit about how a computer works. proc-ess / Noun: A series of actions or steps taken to achieve an end. pro-ce-dure / Noun: A series of actions conducted in a certain order. al-go-rithm / Noun: An ordered set of steps to solve a problem. Basically, writing software (computer programs) involves describing processes, procedures; it involves the authoring of algorithms. An important reason to consider learning about how to program a computer is that the concepts underlying this will be valuable to you, regardless of whether or not you go on to make a career out of it. Computers have proven immensely effective as aids to clear thinking. print [Hello world!] Confusing?

Postmodern Theory - Chapter 1: In Search of the Postmodern Chapter 1: In Search of the Postmodern For the past two decades, the postmodern debates dominated the cultural and intellectual scene in many fields throughout the world. In aesthetic and cultural theory, polemics emerged over whether modernism in the arts was or was not dead and what sort of postmodern art was succeeding it. Advocates of the postmodern turn aggressively criticized traditional culture, theory, and politics, while defenders of the modern tradition responded either by ignoring the new challenger, by attacking it in return, or by attempting to come to terms with and appropriate the new discourses and positions. In view of the wide range of postmodern disputes, we propose to explicate and sort out the differences between the most significant articulations of postmodern theory, and to identify their central positions, insights, and limitations. References | Links | Art Links | E-mail DK ch1 | ch2 | ch3 | ch4 | ch5 | Home

Bourgeoisie The prototypical bourgeois: Monsieur Jourdain, the protagonist of the play Le Bourgeois gentilhomme (1670), by Molière, is the best would-be nobleman that money can buy. In Marxist philosophy, the term bourgeoisie denotes the social class who owns the means of production and whose societal concerns are the value of property and the preservation of capital, in order to ensure the perpetuation of their economic supremacy in society.[3] Joseph Schumpeter instead saw the creation of new bourgeoisie as the driving force behind the capitalist engine, particularly entrepreneurs who took risks in order to bring innovation to industries and the economy through the process of creative destruction.[4] Etymology[edit] The 16th-century German banker Jakob Fugger and his principal accountant, M. History[edit] Denotations[edit] The Dictatorship of the Bourgeoisie[edit] Nomenclatura[edit] In France and French-speaking countries[edit]

Network society The term network society describes several different phenomena related to the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies. A number of academics (see below) are credited with coining the term since the 1980s and several competing definitions exist. The intellectual origins of the idea can be traced back to the work of early social theorists such as Georg Simmel who analyzed the effect of modernization and industrial capitalism on complex patterns of affiliation, organization, production and experience. Origins[edit] The term network society, nettsamfunn, was coined in Norwegian by Stein Braten in his book Modeller av menneske og samfunn (1981). Van Dijk defines the network society as a society in which a combination of social and media networks shapes its prime mode of organization and most important structures at all levels (individual, organizational and societal). Manuel Castells[edit]

In the Grip of the Internet Monopolists Tamar of Georgia Tamar the Great (Georgian: თამარი) (c. 1160 – 18 January 1213), was the Queen Regnant of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, who presided over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.[1] A member of the Bagrationi dynasty, her position as the first woman to rule Georgia in her own right was emphasized by the title mep'e ("king"), commonly afforded to Tamar in the medieval Georgian sources.[2] Tamar was proclaimed heir apparent and co-ruler by her reigning father George III in 1178, but she faced significant opposition from the aristocracy upon her ascension to full ruling powers after George's death. Tamar was successful in neutralizing this opposition and embarked on an energetic foreign policy aided by the decline of the hostile Seljuq Turks. Relying on a powerful military élite, Tamar was able to build on the successes of her predecessors to consolidate an empire which dominated the Caucasus until its collapse under the Mongol attacks within two decades after Tamar's death.[3]