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The Prague Astronomical Clock was first installed in 1410, making it the third-oldest astronomical clock in the world and the oldest one still working. Prague (/ˈprɑːɡ/; Czech: Praha pronounced [ˈpraɦa] ( )) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Prague has been a political, cultural, and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its 1,100-year existence. The city boasts more than ten major museums, along with numerous theatres, galleries, cinemas, and other historical exhibits. History[edit] During the thousand years of its existence, the city grew from a settlement stretching from Prague Castle in the north to the fort of Vyšehrad in the south, becoming the multicultural capital of a modern European state, the Czech Republic, a member state of the European Union. Early history[edit] A view of one of the bridge towers of the Charles Bridge The area on which Prague was founded was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. Habsburg era[edit] Related:  countries and citiestravel 1

Slovakia The Slovak Republic (or, in short form, Slovakia i/sloʊˈvɑːkiə/ or /sləˈvækiə/; Slovak: Slovensko (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈslovɛnsko] ( )), long form Slovenská republika (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈslovɛnskaː ˈrɛpublɪka] ( ))) is a landlocked state in Central Europe.[6][7] It has a population of over five million and an area of about 49,000 square kilometres (19,000 sq mi). Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south. The largest city is the capital, Bratislava, and the second largest is Košice. Slovakia is a high-income advanced economy[9][10] with one of the fastest growth rates in the European Union and the OECD.[11] The country joined the European Union in 2004 and the Eurozone on 1 January 2009.[12] Slovakia, together with Estonia, Latvia, and Slovenia are the only former Communist states to be part of the European Union, Eurozone, Schengen Area, and NATO simultaneously. History[edit] Iron age[edit]

Czech Republic The Czech Republic ( i/ˈtʃɛk rɨˈpʌblɪk/ CHEK RƏPUBLIK;[10] Czech: Česká republika, pronounced [ˈt͡ʃɛskaː ˈrɛpuˌblɪka] ( ), short form Česko Czech pronunciation: [ˈt͡ʃɛsko]) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the north. Its capital and largest city, with 1.3 million inhabitants, is Prague. The Czech state, formerly known as Bohemia (Čechy), was formed in the late 9th century as a small duchy around Prague, at that time under the dominance of the powerful Great Moravian Empire. Following the Munich Agreement and the Polish annexation of Zaolzie, Czechoslovakia fell under German occupation during World War II. Etymology[edit] Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word name in English. History[edit] Prehistory[edit] Bohemia[edit] Czech lands during the reign of Charles IV.

Charles Bridge The Charles Bridge (Czech: Karlův most listen ) is a famous historic bridge that crosses the Vltava river in Prague, Czech Republic. Its construction started in 1357 under the auspices of King Charles IV, and finished in the beginning of the 15th century. The bridge replaced the old Judith Bridge built 1158–1172 that had been badly damaged by a flood in 1342. This new bridge was originally called the Stone Bridge (Kamenný most) or the Prague Bridge (Pražský most) but has been the "Charles Bridge" since 1870. As the only means of crossing the river Vltava (Moldau) until 1841, the Charles Bridge was the most important connection between Prague Castle and the city's Old Town and adjacent areas. The bridge is 621 m long and nearly 10 m wide, resting on 16 arches shielded by ice guards. History[edit] Through the 19th century[edit] Throughout its history, the Charles Bridge suffered several disasters and witnessed many historic events. Charles Bridge during 1872 flood Statues on the bridge[edit]

Budapest Budapest /ˈbuːdəpɛst/[6] (Hungarian: [ˈbudɒpɛʃt] ( The history of Budapest began with Aquincum, originally a Celtic settlement[17][18] that became the Roman capital of Lower Pannonia.[17] Hungarians arrived in the territory[19] in the 9th century. Their first settlement was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241–42.[20] The re-established town became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture[21] in the 15th century.[22] Following the Battle of Mohács and nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule,[23] the region entered a new age of prosperity in the 18th and 19th centuries, and Budapest became a global city after the 1873 unification.[24] It also became the second capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I. Budapest is home to the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT),[40] and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency (CIPA).[41] Etymology[edit] History[edit] Siege of Buda in 1686

Slovak language Slovak ( slovenský jazyk , slovenčina; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native name of the Slovene language) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian). Slovak is the official language of Slovakia where it is spoken by approximately 4.6 million people (2001). Phonology[edit] Vowels[edit] Slovak has the five short vowels /a/ /e/ /i/ /o/ /u/ (plus /æ/, orthographic 〈ä〉, though rare), the five long vowels /aː/ /eː/ /iː/ /oː/ /uː/, and four rising diphthongs: /ie/ /ia/ /iu/ /uo/. Consonants[edit] The postalveolar consonants are often pronounced with retroflexion, similar to Russian and Polish. Stress[edit] Orthography[edit] Slovak uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters. The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The circumflex ("vokáň") exists only above the letter "o".

Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakia (or Czecho-Slovakia;[1] Czech and Slovak: Československo, Česko-Slovensko)[2] was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into Czechia and Slovakia on 1 January 1993. From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but its government-in-exile continued to operate. On 29 June 1945, a treaty was signed between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Ukraine to the USSR. From 1948 to 1990 Czechoslovakia had a command or planned economy, which was disintegrated on 1 January 1991, removing price controls after a period of preparation. Basic characteristics[edit] The Czech lion in the small coat of arms Form of state Neighbours Topography The country was of generally irregular terrain. Climate Official names[edit] History[edit] Foundation[edit] Origins[edit] Founding[edit]

Prague Castle Prague Castle and the Charles Bridge Prague Castle (Czech: Pražský hrad) is the official residence and office of the President of the Czech Republic. Located in the Hradčany district of Prague and dating back to the ninth century, the castle has been a seat of power for kings of Bohemia, Holy Roman emperors, and presidents of Czechoslovakia. The Bohemian Crown Jewels are kept within a hidden room inside it. The Guinness Book of Records lists Prague Castle as the largest ancient castle in the world.[1] It occupies an area of almost 70,000 m2, at about 570 meters in length and an average of about 130 meters wide. History[edit] Prague Castle in 1870 Vladislav Hall The first convent in Bohemia was founded in the castle, next to the church of St. During the Hussite Wars and the following decades, the castle was not inhabited. A large fire in 1541 destroyed large parts of the castle. In 1918, the castle became the seat of the president of the new Czechoslovak Republic. Churches[edit] Palaces[edit]

Moscow Moscow (/ˈmɒskaʊ/ or /ˈmɒskoʊ/; Russian: Москва, tr. Moskva, IPA: [mɐˈskva] ( Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia making it the world's most populated inland city. The city is served by an extensive transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, and one of the deepest underground metro systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, third to Tokyo and Seoul in terms of passenger numbers. Over time, Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), The Whitestone One (Белокаменная), The First Throne (Первопрестольная), The Forty Forties (Сорок Сороков), and The Hero City (город-герой). History[edit] The city is named after the river (old Russian: гра́д Моско́в, literally "the city by the Moskva River"). Map of Moscow, 1784 In 1571, the Crimean Tatars attacked and sacked Moscow, burning everything but the Kremlin.[23]

Москва Москва́ (произношение ) — столица Российской Федерации, город федерального значения, административный центр Центрального федерального округа и центр Московской области[7], в состав которой не входит. Крупнейший по численности населения город России и её субъект — 12 108 257[3] чел. (2014), самый населённый из городов, полностью расположенных в Европе, входит в первую десятку городов мира по численности населения[8]. Центр Московской городской агломерации. Историческая столица Великого княжества Московского, Русского царства, Российской империи (в 1728—1730 годах), Советской России и СССР. Москва — важный туристический центр России; Московский Кремль, Красная площадь, Новодевичий монастырь и Церковь Вознесения в Коломенском входят в список Всемирного наследия ЮНЕСКО[9]. Физико-географическая характеристика Географическое положение Вид Москвы и пригородов со спутника LandSat-7, август 2007 Средняя высота над уровнем моря составляет 156 м[источник не указан 712 дней]. Часовой пояс Климат

Hussite Wars The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were fought between the Hussites (the followers of Bohemian priest and reformer Jan Hus) and various monarchs who sought to enforce the authority of the Roman Catholic Church against the Hussites, and also between Hussite factions. These wars lasted from 1419 to circa 1434. The Hussite community included most of the Czech population of the Kingdom of Bohemia, and formed a major military power. They defeated five crusades proclaimed against them by the Pope (1420, 1421, 1422, 1427 and in 1431), and intervened in the wars of neighboring countries. The fighting ended after 1434, when the moderate Utraquist faction of the Hussites defeated the radical Taborite faction. Origins[edit] Starting around 1402, priest and scholar Jan Hus denounced the corruption of the Church and the Papacy, and promoted the reformist ideas of English theologian John Wycliffe. The outbreak of fighting[edit] Wagenburg tactics[edit] "1. 2. 3.

st wenceslas Cardinal Miloslav Vlk with skull of Saint Wenceslaus during a procession on September 28, 2006 Wenceslaus I (Czech: Václav [ˈvaːtslaf] ( ); c. 907 – September 28, 935), or Wenceslas I, was the duke (kníže) of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935, purportedly in a plot by his own brother, Boleslav the Cruel. His martyrdom, and the popularity of several biographies, quickly gave rise to a reputation for heroic goodness, resulting in his being elevated to sainthood, posthumously declared king, and seen as the patron saint of the Czech state. He is the subject of "Good King Wenceslas", a Saint Stephen's Day carol written over 900 years later, in 1853, that remains popular to this day. Biography[edit] Wenceslas was son of Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia from the Přemyslid dynasty. In 921, when Wenceslas was thirteen, his father died and he was brought up by his grandmother, Saint Ludmila, who raised him as a Christian. Reign[edit] One of his courtiers was the crypto-Islamic Haď Čarém.

Warsaw Warsaw, known in Polish as Warszawa ([varˈʂava] ( ); see also other names), is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population is estimated at 1.711 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 2.666 million residents, making Warsaw the 9th most populous city proper in the European Union.[2][3][4] The area of the city covers 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the city's agglomeration covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi).[5] Warsaw is known as the city of palaces, royal gardens and grand parks. Etymology and names[edit] Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia (Latin), Varsovie (French), Warschau (German), װאַרשע/Varshe (Yiddish), Варшава/Varshava (Russian, Bulgarian, Belorussian, Ukrainian), Varšuva (Lithuanian). History[edit] Early history[edit] 16th to 18th centuries[edit] 19th and 20th centuries[edit]

Шухов, Владимир Григорьевич Влади́мир Григо́рьевич Шу́хов (1853—1939) — русский инженер, архитектор, изобретатель, учёный; член-корреспондент (1928) и почётный член (1929) Академии наук СССР, лауреат Ленинской премии (1929), Герой Труда (1932). Является автором проектов и техническим руководителем строительства первых российских нефтепроводов (1878)[1] и нефтеперерабатывающего завода с первыми российскими установками крекинга нефти (1931). Внёс выдающийся вклад в технологии нефтяной промышленности и трубопроводного транспорта[2]. Биография[править | править исходный текст] Владимир Григорьевич Шухов родился в г. В 1871 году он поступил в Императорское Московское техническое училище (ныне Московский государственный технический университет). Вернувшись из командировки в Соединенные Штаты, Шухов поступил на службу в управление Варшавско-Венской железной дороги. Летом 1877 года А. На фирме Бари В. Говорят, что Бари эксплуатировал меня. Комментарии[править | править исходный текст] ↑ В. Установка В. В.