"Physiologies" redirects here. For other uses, see Physiology. The study of the human body involves anatomy and physiology. The human body can show anatomical non-pathological anomalies known as variations which need to be able to be recognised. Structure The human body has several body cavities the largest of which is the abdominopelvic cavity. Composition The main elements that compose the human body are shown from most abundant to least abundant. The average adult body contains between 5 and 5½ litres of blood and approximately 10 litres of interstitial fluid. The composition of the human body can be referred to in terms of its water content, elements content, tissue types or material types. The vast majority of cells in the human body are not human at all; rather they are of bacteria, archaea, and methanogens such as Methanobrevibacter smithii. The proportions of the elements of the body can be referred to in terms of the main elements, minor ones and trace elements.
Body proportionsWhile there is significant variation in anatomical proportions between people, there are many references to body proportions that are intended to be canonical, either in art, measurement, or medicine. Similarly, in art, body proportions are the study of relation of human or animal body parts to each other and to the whole. These ratios are used in veristic depictions of the figure, and also become part of an aesthetic canon within a culture. Basics of human proportions Human proportions marked out in an illustration from a 20th century anatomy text-book. Different proportions in different people. It is important in figure drawing to draw the human figure in proportion. The proportions used in figure drawing are: Western ideal Leg-to-body ratio Another study using British and American participants, found "mid-ranging" leg-to-body ratios to be most ideal. Muscle men and thin women Japanese ideal Leonardo da Vinci Additional images
Male Skeleton AnatomyThe Heart Disease and Cardiology Home PageUnique Bodies TutorialBVI (body volume index)The Body Volume Index (BVI) is a new measurement for obesity, proposed as an alternative to the Body Mass Index (BMI). BMI is based on a measurement of total mass, irrespective of the location of the mass, but BVI looks at the relationship between mass and volume distribution (i.e. where different body mass is located on the body). People of different age, gender or ethnicity will have different body shapes and recent studies have highlighted the limitations of BMI as an indicator of individual health risk. BVI as an application for body shape and obesity measurement The Body Volume Index (BVI) was originally devised in February 2000 as a new, modern-day measurement for measuring obesity; an alternative to the Body Mass Index (BMI) which was originally conceived between 1830 and 1850. BVI is an application that can be used on a 3D Full Body Scanner to determine individual health risk, whether the scanning hardware uses visible light optical information or otherwise.
Images Of Female AthletesThe images below show an incredible variety of women, ranging in weight, height, race and proportion. What they all have in common is that they are professional athletes at their physical peak. The images, taken by photographer Howard Schatz for his 2002 book, Athlete, recently resurfaced, reminding us of the diversity of women's bodies. Schatz interviewed and photographed hundreds of athletes for the book, a project he says was inspired by his interest in human variation and the musculoskeletal system. "I was also interested in passion," he told the Huffington Post in a phone interview. During his interviews, Schatz noted very little difference between how the male and female athletes approached their sport. The only gender difference apparent to Schatz was how the athletes approached the issue of having children. Throughout the project, Schatz says he remained in awe of his subjects.
BMI (body mass index)A graph of body mass index as a function of body mass and body height is shown above. The dashed lines represent subdivisions within a major class. For instance the "Underweight" classification is further divided into "severe", "moderate", and "mild" subclasses. The body mass index (BMI), or Quetelet index, is a measure for human body shape based on an individual's mass and height. Devised between 1830 and 1850 by the Belgian polymath Adolphe Quetelet during the course of developing "social physics", it is defined as the individual's body mass divided by the square of their height – with the value universally being given in units of kg/m2. † The factor for United States customary units is more precisely 703.06957964, but that level of precision is not meaningful for this calculation. The BMI is used in a wide variety of contexts as a simple method to assess how much an individual's body weight departs from what is normal or desirable for a person of his or her height. Usage