Neuroticism Emotional stability At the opposite end of the spectrum, individuals who score low in neuroticism are more emotionally stable and less reactive to stress. They tend to be calm, even-tempered, and less likely to feel tense or rattled. Although they are low in negative emotion, they are not necessarily high on positive emotion. Being high on positive emotion is an element of the independent trait of extraversion. Neurotic extraverts, for example, would experience high levels of both positive and negative emotional states, a kind of "emotional roller coaster". Measurement Like other personality traits, neuroticism is typically viewed as a continuous dimension rather than distinct. Extent of neuroticism is generally assessed using self-report measures, although peer-reports and third-party observation can also be used. Statement measures tend to comprise more words, and hence consume more research instrument space, than lexical measures. Psychopathology Neuropsychology
About.com First Aid - First Aid & Safety Tips for Emergencies or Everyday Depressive realism Evidence for Evidence against When asked to rate both their performance and the performance of another, non-depressed individuals demonstrated positive bias when rating themselves but no bias when rating others. Criticism of the evidence Some have argued that the evidence is not more conclusive because there is no standard for "reality," the diagnoses are dubious, and the results may not apply to the real world. Because many studies rely on self-report of depressive symptoms, the diagnosis of depression in these studies may not be valid as self-reports are known to often be biased, necessitating the use of other objective measures. See also References Jump up ^ Alloy,L.B., Abramson,L.Y. (1988). Further reading Rachel Adelson (April 2005).
Emaxhealth: Daily Health News Madonna–whore complex In sexual politics the view of women as either Madonnas or whores limits women's sexual expression, offering two mutually exclusive ways to construct a sexual identity. The term is also used popularly, often with subtly different meanings. Causes Freud argued that the Madonna–whore complex is caused by oedipal castration fears which arise when a man experiences the affection he once felt for his mother with women he now sexually desires. This earlier theory is based not on oedipal-based castration anxiety but on man's primary hatred of women, stimulated by the child’s sense that he had been made to experience intolerable frustration and/or narcissistic injury at the hands of his mother. According to Freudian psychology, this complex often develops when the sufferer is raised by a cold and distant mother. In popular culture See also References Notes Jump up ^ Kaplan, Helen Singer (1988). Literature Freud, Sigmund. External links John A.
fitness lifestyle How Alcohol Affects the Brain General Effects of Alcohol on the Brain Alcohol can affect several parts of the brain, but in general, alcohol contracts brain tissue and depresses the central nervous system. Also, alcohol destroys brain cells and unlike many other types of cells in the body, brain cells do not regenerate. When alcohol reaches the brain, it interferes with communication between nerve cells, by interacting with the receptors on some cells. Chemical Effects of Alcohol on the Brain To understand how alcohol interferes with brain function, it is necessary to know a little bit about normal brain function. The gap between cells where neurotransmitters are active is called the synapse. When alcohol is introduced to the synapse, the normal neurotransmission may be affected. Effects of Alcohol on Brain Parts Alcohol affects different parts of the brain in different ways. The cerebral cortex and alcohol Affect thought processes, leading to potentially poor judgement. The limbic system and alcohol
Fitness Tips To Get Lean and Toned, Not Bulky! | Fitness Black Book Forer effect A related and more general phenomenon is that of subjective validation. Subjective validation occurs when two unrelated or even random events are perceived to be related because a belief, expectation, or hypothesis demands a relationship. Thus people seek a correspondence between their perception of their personality and the contents of a horoscope. Forer's demonstration On average, the students rated its accuracy as 4.26 on a scale of 0 (very poor) to 5 (excellent). Only after the ratings were turned in was it revealed that each student had received an identical sketch assembled by Forer from a newsstand astrology book. The sketch contains statements that are vague and general enough to most people. In another study examining the Forer effect, students took the MMPI personality assessment and researchers evaluated their responses. The Forer effect is also known as the "Barnum effect". Repeating the study Variables influencing the effect Recent research
A Fit and Spicy Life Dunning–Kruger effect Cognitive bias in which people of low ability mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from the inability of people to recognize their lack of ability. Without the self-awareness of metacognition, people cannot objectively evaluate their competence or incompetence. As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others Definition Original study Later studies Popular recognition
HEALTHY LIVING WITH KELLY Hunting Alzheimer’s Early Signs - Science in 2011 Todd Heisler/The New York Times FAMILY DISEASE Carlos Alberto Villegas is looked after by his wife, Blanca Nelly Betancur. He is one of the many members of a Colombian clan who have a genetic mutation that leads them to develop dementia. Scientists now know Alzheimer’s attacks the brain long before people exhibit or cognitive decline. But the specifics are crucial because so far, drug after drug has failed to effectively treat Alzheimer’s in people who already show symptoms. If drugs could be given sooner, tailored to specific biological changes, or biomarkers, in the brain, treatment, or even prevention, might be more successful. “We’re trying to go earlier and earlier in the course of the disease,” said Neil Buckholtz, chief of the Dementias of Aging branch at the National Institute on Aging. Several research projects are expecting to make strides next year. Meanwhile, the project, begun this year, has had some tantalizing findings. While Dr. The team, also led by Dr. They will be, Dr.