Chekhov's gun Chekhov's gun is a dramatic principle requiring that every element in a narrative be necessary and irreplaceable, and that everything else be removed. Remove everything that has no relevance to the story. If you say in the first chapter that there is a rifle hanging on the wall, in the second or third chapter it absolutely must go off. Variations on the statement include: "One must never place a loaded rifle on the stage if it isn't going to go off. See also Foreshadowing, casual use of elements which become important laterOccam's razor, a similar principle for assessing potential explanationsRed herring, drawing attention to a certain element in order to mislead References Jump up ^ Petr Mikhaĭlovich Bit︠s︡illi (1983), Chekhov's art, a stylistic analysis, Ardis, p. x Jump up ^ Daniel S.
A Handbook of Rhetorical Devices Robert A. Harris Version Date: January 19, 2013 This book contains definitions and examples of more than sixty traditional rhetorical devices, (including rhetorical tropes and rhetorical figures) all of which can still be useful today to improve the effectiveness, clarity, and enjoyment of your writing. Note: This book was written in 1980, with some changes since. The devices presented are not in alphabetical order. A Preface of Quotations Whoever desires for his writings or himself, what none can reasonably condemn,the favor of mankind, must add grace to strength, and make his thoughts agreeable as well as useful. Men must be taught as if you taught them not; And things unknown propos'd as things forgot. Style in painting is the same as in writing, a power over materials, whether words or colors, by which conceptions or sentiments are conveyed. Introduction Practice these; try them out. Resources by Edward P. Rhetorical Devices 1. 2. 4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 | Next Page Hosted By
Imagery Imagery, in a literary text, is an author's use of vivid and descriptive language to add depth to his or her work. It appeals to human senses to deepen the reader's understanding of the work. Forms of imagery There are seven types of imagery, each corresponding to a human sense, feeling, or action: Visual imagery pertains to sight, and allows you to visualize events or places in a work.Auditory imagery pertains to a sound. See also (examples of imagery) References External links
Plot, Theme, the Narrative Arc, and Narrative Patterns In the world of fiction, just as in the world of your life, events occur. In life, people often try to determine what events mean in their own life and in the life of others. In fiction, authors will create meaning by introducing conflicts in the life of a character. Plot is not just what happens in a story. Similarly, the plot in a film is not just what happens. The pattern for narrative was largely handed down from the Greek tradition in drama. Exposition In section one of a narrative, viewers are exposed to information that will later be necessary for them to have if they are to understand the unfolding story. Characters: The lead character in the narrative — the character who faces the conflict — is called the protagonist. Rising Action In section two of the tale, the reader/viewer moves into the Rising Action of the story. In early literature, the conflicts were Man vs. Resolution As the story draws to a close, the Narrative Arc descends into the realm of Resolution.
Why I Write Gangrel, [No. 4, Summer] 1946 George Orwell’s “National Union of Journalists” press card (1943) From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer. I was the middle child of three, but there was a gap of five years on either side, and I barely saw my father before I was eight. However, throughout this time I did in a sense engage in literary activities. When I was about sixteen I suddenly discovered the joy of mere words, i.e. the sounds and associations of words. So hee with difficulty and labour hard Moved on: with difficulty and labour hee. which do not now seem to me so very wonderful, sent shivers down my backbone; and the spelling ‘hee’ for ‘he’ was an added pleasure. I give all this background information because I do not think one can assess a writer’s motives without knowing something of his early development. (i) Sheer egoism. (ii) Aesthetic enthusiasm. (iii) Historical impulse. It is not easy.
Author's Craft - Narrative Elements - Foreshadowing Narrative Elements Foreshadowing What is it? Foreshadowing is a way of indicating or hinting at what will come later. Foreshadowing can be subtle, like storm clouds on the horizon suggesting that danger is coming, or more direct, such as Romeo and Juliet talking about wanting to die rather than live without each other. Sometimes authors use false clues to mislead a reader. Why is it important? Foreshadowing adds dramatic tension to a story by building anticipation about what might happen next. How do I create it? Create foreshadowing by placing clues, both subtle and direct, into the text. To create foreshadowing in fiction or non-fiction, Give the reader direct information by mentioning an upcoming event or explaining the plans of the people or characters portrayed in the text: "As the Lincolns rode to Ford's Theatre on 10th Street, John Wilkes Booth and three conspirators were a block away at the Herndon House. Self Check Example Foreshadowing Tip
Story within a story Types of nested story Story within a story The inner stories are told either simply to entertain or more usually to act as an example to the other characters. In either case the story often has symbolic and psychological significance for the characters in the outer story. There is often some parallel between the two stories, and the fiction of the inner story is used to reveal the truth in the outer story. The literary device of stories within a story dates back to a device known as a frame story, when the outer story does not have much matter, and most of the bulk of the work consists of one or more complete stories told by one or more storytellers. Often the stories within a story are used to satirize views, not only in the outer story but also in the real world. In some cases, the story within a story is involved in the action of the plot of the outer story. Subsequent layers This literary device also dates back to ancient Sanskrit literature.
Showing Character Change by Joy Cagil As has been indicated by writers and writing coaches, in a good story, characters create conflict; consequently, conflict creates drama. In addition, a story shows more depth if its characters go through changes. The question is: how can a writer go about showing the changes inside his characters during the trajectory of the story? Let us take a brief look at how some characters may go through a change in a story. If a story is written from the first person point of view, the character may show the workings of his mind through the narration of his feelings, or the change can be followed in a character's journal. The change can also be shown through the interaction of characters called confidantes. If a major character has his opposite, at the end of the story when that character has gone through a change, the reader finds that the character's understanding and values has neared to that of his opposite. About the Author Joy Cagil is an author on
Scholastic- Craft Writing by Brenda Power Supporting children in honing their writing craft can be daunting because most of us don't feel accomplished ourselves as writers. That's why focusing on beginnings and endings works so well: it's concrete and manageable. The approaches outlined in this cover story are favorites of the teachers I visit, and are easily adapted for students of any age. In this article, you'll find: A kiss hello...a wave good-bye...an airplane fading in the sky. Our lives are marked by beginnings and endings. The best leads and endings don't just happen; they are crafted. If you take some time to make leads and endings the focus of your lessons, youmay be surprised at how quickly students' overall writing skills improve. l. Together, you may also want to create separate charts for beginnings and endings.Classify the beginnings you read according to whether they contain dialogue, a "climactic moment," helpful introductory information, or other categories you discover through reading. 2. 3. 4.
virtuaLit Fiction: Elements of Fiction The Hare and the Tortoise One day the speedy hare was bragging among his fellow animals. “I have never been beaten in a race,” he said. “When I use my amazing speed, the race is over almost instantly. Would any of you like to take me on?” “I’ll challenge you,” said the tortoise. “You against me?” The animals set up a course, and the race began. “Slow and steady wins the race,” said the smiling tortoise. In this well-known fable of Aesop, the final lesson emanating from the smiling tortoise is somewhat evident.