William Henry "Bill" Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, philanthropist, investor, computer programmer, and inventor. Gates is the former chief executive and chairman of Microsoft, the world’s largest personal-computer software company, which he co-founded with Paul Allen. He is consistently ranked in the Forbes list of the world's wealthiest people and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009—excluding 2008, when he was ranked third; in 2011 he was the wealthiest American and the world's second wealthiest person. According to the Bloomberg Billionaires List, Gates became the world's richest person again in 2013, a position that he last held on the list in 2007. As of April 2014, he is the richest. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder, with 6.4 percent of the common stock.[a] He has also authored and co-authored several books.
Warren BuffettBuffett is called the "Wizard of Omaha" or "Oracle of Omaha", or the "Sage of Omaha" and is noted for his adherence to value investing and for his personal frugality despite his immense wealth. Buffett is a notable philanthropist, having pledged to give away 99 percent of his fortune to philanthropic causes, primarily via the Gates Foundation. On April 11, 2012, he was diagnosed with prostate cancer, for which he successfully completed treatment in September 2012. Early life Buffett's interest in the stock market and investing dated to schoolboy days he spent in the customers' lounge of a regional stock brokerage near his father's own brokerage office. Business career By 1950, at 20, Buffett had made and saved $9,800 (over $96,000 inflation adjusted for the 2014 USD). In April 1952, Buffett discovered that Graham was on the board of GEICO insurance. In 1952, Buffett married Susan Thompson at Dundee Presbyterian Church. As a millionaire As a billionaire Coal
Steve JobsAmerican entrepreneur and co-founder of Apple Inc. Steven Paul Jobs (/dʒɒbz/; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American entrepreneur and business magnate. He was the chairman, chief executive officer (CEO), and a co-founder of Apple Inc., chairman and majority shareholder of Pixar, a member of The Walt Disney Company's board of directors following its acquisition of Pixar, and the founder, chairman, and CEO of NeXT. Jobs is widely recognized as a pioneer of the microcomputer revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, along with Apple co-founder Steve Wozniak. Jobs and Wozniak co-founded Apple in 1976 to sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer. Background Biological and adoptive family Steven Paul Jobs was born to Abdulfattah Jandali and Joanne Schieble, and was adopted by Paul Jobs and Clara Hagopian. Birth Schieble became pregnant with Jobs in 1954 when she and Jandali spent the summer with his family in Homs, Syria. Childhood —Steve Jobs[page needed] Homestead High Reed College Death
MicrosoftCoordinates: History 1972–83: Founding and company beginnings Paul Allen (l.) and Bill Gates (r.) on October 19, 1981, in a sea of PCs after signing a pivotal contract. IBM called Microsoft in July 1980 inquiring about programming languages for its upcoming PC line;:228 after failed negotiations with another company, IBM gave Microsoft a contract to develop the OS for the new line of PCs. Microsoft entered the OS business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS that solidified the company's dominance. 1984–94: Windows and Office In 1990, Microsoft introduced its office suite, Microsoft Office. On July 27, 1994, the U.S. 1995–2005: Internet and the 32-bit era Bill Gates giving his deposition in 1998 for the United States v. 2006–10: Windows Vista, mobile, and Windows 7 2007 also saw the creation of a multi-core unit at Microsoft, as they followed in the steps of server companies such as Sun and IBM.
Mark ZuckerbergTogether with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, Zuckerberg launched Facebook from Harvard's dormitory rooms. The group then introduced Facebook onto other campuses nationwide and moved to Palo Alto, California shortly afterwards. In 2007, at the age of 23, Zuckerberg became a billionaire as a result of Facebook's success. The number of Facebook users worldwide reached a total of one billion in 2012. Zuckerberg was involved in various legal disputes that were initiated by others in the group, who claimed a share of the company based upon their involvement during the development phase of Facebook. Early life At Ardsley High School, Zuckerberg excelled in classics. Software developer Early years According to writer Jose Antonio Vargas, "some kids played computer games. College years We had books called Face Books, which included the names and pictures of everyone who lived in the student dorms.
WikiquoteIf you show people the problems and you show people the solutions they will be moved to act. William Henry Gates III (born 28 October 1955) is the co-founder and Chairman of Microsoft, and founder of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Forbes magazine has ranked him as the richest person in the world for twelve consecutive years. Sourced 1980s It's not manufacturers trying to rip anybody off or anything like that. 1990s If people had understood how patents would be granted when most of today's ideas were invented, and had taken out patents, the industry would be at a complete standstill today.… The solution to this is patent exchanges with large companies and patenting as much as we can. 2000s Microsoft has had clear competitors in the past. Interview from Programmers at Work (1986) Suzanne Lammers, Programmers at Work: Interviews With 19 Programmers Who Shaped the Computer Industry, Harper and Row, ISBN 0-914-84571-3. The Road Ahead (1995) Attributed
EugenicsWhile eugenic principles have been practiced as far back in world history as Ancient Greece, the modern history of eugenics began in the early 20th century when a popular eugenics movement emerged in Britain and spread to many countries, including the United States and most European countries. In this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies meant to improve the genetic stock of their countries. Such programs often included both "positive" measures, such as encouraging individuals deemed particularly "fit" to reproduce, and "negative" measures such as marriage prohibitions and forced sterilization of people deemed unfit for reproduction. A major critique of eugenics policies is that regardless of whether "negative" or "positive" policies are used, they are vulnerable to abuse because the criteria of selection are determined by whichever group is in political power. History Meanings and types
Paul KrugmanPaul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist, Professor of Economics and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University, Centenary Professor at the London School of Economics, Distinguished Scholar at the Luxembourg Income Study Center at the CUNY Graduate Center, and an op-ed columnist for The New York Times. In 2008, Krugman won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to New Trade Theory and New Economic Geography. According to the prize Committee, the prize was given for Krugman's work explaining the patterns of international trade and the geographic concentration of wealth, by examining the effects of economies of scale and of consumer preferences for diverse goods and services. Krugman is known in academia for his work on international economics (including trade theory, economic geography, and international finance), liquidity traps, and currency crises.
Duke UniversityDuke University is a private research university located in Durham, North Carolina, United States. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James B. Duke established The Duke Endowment, at which time the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke's research expenditures in the 2010 fiscal year topped $983 million, the fifth largest figure in the nation. Competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference, Duke's athletic teams – known as the Blue Devils— have captured 13 team national championships, including four by its high profile men's basketball team. In 2013, Duke was ranked 17th and 23rd in the world by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and QS World University Rankings, respectively, while tying for 7th in the U.S. in the 2014 U.S. News & World Report "Best National Universities Rankings. James B.