Contents. The Wealth of Networks, by Yochai Benkler The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom by Yochai Benkler, Yale University Press © Copyright 2006, Yochai Benkler. Contents This online version has been created under a Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial ShareAlike license - see www.benkler.org - and has been reformatted and designated as recommended reading - with an accompanying Moodle course - for the Education Committee of CONGO - the Conference Of Non-Governmental Organizations in Consultative Relationship with the United Nations - in conjunction with the Committee's commitment to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, the International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-violence for the Children of the World and related international Decades, agreements, conventions and treaties. Epigraph John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (1859) Acknowledgments Introduction: A Moment of Opportunity and Challenge Part I: The Networked Information Economy
Google Drive and Docs: Uploading and Syncing Files Social media Diagram depicting the many different types of social media There are many effects that stem from internet usage. According to Nielsen, internet users continue to spend more time with social media sites than any other type of site. At the same time, the total time spent on social media in the U.S. across PC and mobile devices increased by 99 percent to 121 billion minutes in July 2012 compared to 66 billion minutes in July 2011. For content contributors, the benefits of participating in social media have gone beyond simply social sharing to building reputation and bringing in career opportunities and monetary income, as discussed in Tang, Gu, and Whinston (2012). Classification of social media Social media technologies take on many different forms including blogs, business networks , enterprise social networks, forums, microblogs, photo sharing, products/services review, social bookmarking, social gaming, social networks, video sharing and virtual worlds. Virality
Web 2.0 World Wide Web sites that use technology beyond the static pages of earlier Web sites Web 2.0 (also known as participative (or participatory) web and social web) refers to websites that emphasize user-generated content, ease of use, participatory culture and interoperability (i.e., compatibility with other products, systems, and devices) for end users. The term was coined by Darcy DiNucci in 1999 and later popularized by Tim O'Reilly and Dale Dougherty at the first Web 2.0 Conference in 2004. Although the term mimics the numbering of software versions, it does not denote a formal change in the nature of the World Wide Web, but merely describes a general change that occurred during this period as interactive websites proliferated and came to overshadow the older, more static websites of the original Web. History Web 1.0 Some Web 2.0 capabilities were present in the days of Web 1.0, but were implemented differently. Characteristics Web 2.0 Search
Five Possibilities for the Future of Facebook - PCWorld Now that Facebook has hit the 300 million members mark and shown that its free service can rope in dough, we have to wonder what will happen to the social networking giant ten years down the road. Here are five possibilities for the future of Facebook. Evolved Gaming Interactivity Facebook has already embraced the allure of interactive gaming -- almost to the point of obnoxious saturation. (Honestly, do you really want to see one more Mob Wars update?) The gaming platform will likely evolve into a more graphics-heavy, MMO-type experience; a true utilization of Facebook's social networking abilities. More Aggressive Advertising Facebook reached "cash flow positive" status through its advertising. A Pointless Offshoot Imagine a Facebook phone, a Facebook OS, or a Facebook retail store. A Busy Catch-All A Brick Wall Social networking will eventually plateau, skid, and fall off a cliff.
FT Magazine - Facebook’s grand plan for the future Mark Zuckerberg is pacing before a crowd in Facebook’s Palo Alto, California, cafeteria just before lunch on a Wednesday in November. Fit and jovial, with pale skin and curly brown hair, his boyish face gives away his 26 years. “Zuck”, as friends call him, is wearing what he always wears: a grey T-shirt with an embroidered Facebook logo, blue jeans and tennis shoes. With this perennially casual demeanour, he is showing off new technologies to a few hundred employees, partners and the press. With Deals, smartphone users who download Facebook’s application can “check in” to a physical location, such as their local coffee shop, and get a little reward. During his presentation, Zuckerberg uses words such as “revolution” and “disruption”. After the public presentation I join Zuckerberg and a couple of bloggers in a glass-walled conference room in the middle of Facebook’s offices. “If you look five years out, every industry is going to be rethought in a social way,” he says. B.J.
Knowledge economy The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-etre) to generate tangible and intangible values. Technology and in particular knowledge technology (Artificial Intelligence) help to transform a part of human knowledge to machines. This knowledge can be used by decision support systems in various fields and generate economic values. The phrase was popularized by Peter Drucker as the title of Chapter 12 in his book The Age of Discontinuity, And, with a footnote in the text, Drucker attributes the phrase to economist Fritz Machlup and its origins to the idea of "scientific management" developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor. Other than the agricultural-intensive economies and labor-intensive economies, the global economy is in transition to a "knowledge economy", as an extension of an "information society" in the Information Age led by innovation, such as providing the development platform for engineering physics. Concepts
Digitally excluded households miss out on 1bn savings a year Technology - Why $50bn may not be much between friends Even by the standards of the dotcom bubble, when billionaire twenty-somethings seemed to be minted daily, the news that 26-year-old Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg is worth $12bn – at least on paper – has turned heads. If a new bubble is inflating in Silicon Valley, Facebook looks like proof. The social networking site was, until recently, seen as little more than a time-sink for teenagers. But the $50bn price tag slapped on by Goldman Sachs – the closest thing Wall Street has to an official stamp of approval – has seen investment euphoria over hot Californian start-ups reach levels not seen since the heady early 2000s. Mr Zuckerberg is best known as the preternaturally smart (but socially awkward) Harvard dropout from the film The Social Network, a strong contender for this year’s best picture Oscar. There is a more tantalising possibility, however: Facebook may actually be undervalued, even at these lofty levels. This has set up a fascinating tussle over the future of the web.
Social graph This animation shows the different types of relations between social objects. User Eva is a friend of Adam and Kate, though Adam and Kate are not friends themselves. Peter's photo was "liked" by many users, including Eva. Also Eva listened to the Last.fm radio and watched the video from Youtube. The term was popularized at the Facebook F8 conference on May 24, 2007, when it was used to explain that the Facebook Platform, which was introduced at the same time, would benefit from the social graph by taking advantage of the relationships between individuals, that Facebook provides, to offer a richer online experience. The definition has been expanded to refer to a social graph of all Internet users. One of the earliest known forms of the social graph was created in 2002 by Harvard student Philippe Bouzaglou in a paper published on the Harvard Department of Economics website. Issues Open Graph See also References External links
Facebook: One Social Graph to Rule Them All? Facebook.com founder Mark Zuckerberg smiles at Facebook headquarters in Palo Alto, Calif., in this Feb. 5, 2007, file photo. Facebook Inc. has avoided the acquisition frenzy that's gobbled up MySpace.com, YouTube and other startups, and the company is now striving to become a general portal like Yahoo, not just a social networking site for college students. AP Photo One social graph to rule them all? With more than 400 million people already on Facebook, CEO Mark Zuckerberg is eager to add more and he hopes the company's latest announcements will expand its domination of social networking. That was the subtext today as Facebook kicked off F8, its annual conference for software developers in San Francisco. Zuckerberg talked about how the company intends to connect parts of the Web that other social sites are building, part of what he described as the "Open Graph." "Yelp is mapping out the part of the graph that relates to small businesses. No Standalone "Connect" Privacy an Issue?
The Next Evolution of Facebook Platform We're hosting our third f8 conference in San Francisco today. There are two important themes behind everything we're delivering today. First, the Web is moving to a model based on the connections between people and all the things they care about. Today we are introducing three new components of Facebook Platform to make the connections-based Web more real: social plugins, the Open Graph protocol, and the Graph API. Social Plugins Instantly engaging social experiences with just one line of HTML Social plugins are the easiest way to integrate the social graph into your site and provide an instantly personalized experience to your users. Open Graph Protocol Any webpage can now easily become part of the social graph On Facebook, users build their profiles through connections to what they care about — be it their friends or their favorite sports teams, bottles of wine, or celebrities. Graph API A drastically simplified way for developers to use Facebook Platform Hacking the Graph