Ancient Greece The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens, is one of the most representative symbols of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks. Ancient Greece was a Greek civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (ca. 600 AD). Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in ancient Greece is the period of Classical Greece, which flourished during the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Classical Greece began with the repelling of a Persian invasion by Athenian leadership. Because of conquests by Alexander the Great, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. Chronology Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details Historiography History Archaic period Classical Greece 5th century
Mycenaean Greece Mycenaean civilization perished with the collapse of Bronze-Age civilization in the eastern Mediterranean, which is commonly attributed to the Dorian invasion, although alternative theories propose also natural disasters and climatic changes. This period of Greek history is the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and myth, including the epics of Homer. Mycenaean civilization Mycenaean Greece, ca. 1400–1100 BC. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Helladic periods in mainland Greece. It emerged at ca. 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete. Quite unlike the Minoans, whose society benefited from trade, the Mycenaeans advanced through conquest. Not only did the Mycenaeans defeat the Minoans, but according to later Hellenic legend they defeated Troy, presented in epic as a city-state that rivaled Mycenae in power. Historical correlations
Ancient Greek Economy Bronze Age storage jars at Knossos The Greeks did not have the same idea of an economy that we have. The word "economy" is Greek, but to the Greeks it meant something like "rules of a household" (the "eco" part of economy is from the Greek word for house, "oikos", and the "nomy" part is from their word for law). Because they did not think about the economy as a whole, it is hard to talk of a government economic policy. But even without any policy, people do still make things, use things, buy things, and sell things, and that is what an economy is. Even as far back as the Stone Age, many Greeks were sailors, and sailed all over the Eastern Mediterranean. Finally, other Greeks were pirates, who simply raided wherever they could and took whatever they could get. More on the Greek economy Or, check out these book suggestions on Amazon.com or at your local library: Trade & Warfare, by Robert Hull (2000). Ancient Greek Jobs (People in the Past Series-Greece), by Haydn Middleton (2002). or
Mesopotamia Map showing the extent of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia (from the Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία: "[land] between rivers"; Arabic: بلاد الرافدين (bilād al-rāfidayn); Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ (Beth Nahrain): "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria and to a much lesser extent southeastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran. Widely considered to be the cradle of civilization in the West, Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. Around 150 BC, Mesopotamia was under the control of the Parthians. Etymology The regional toponym Mesopotamia comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος (meso) "middle" and ποταμός (potamia) "river" and literally means "(Land) between rivers". Geography History Periodization
Greek Slaves Slave woman playing a kithara. You can tell she is a slave because she has short hair. In ancient Greece, most people who worked at jobs - teachers, doctors, nurses, construction workers, policemen, hair-dressers, mail carriers, cooks, nannies, bakers, miners, farmhands, dancers, musicians, craftspeople, and accountants - were slaves instead of free people. A man cooking - probably a slave(Louvre Museum, Paris) Most people who were slaves in Greece had been born free. There were a lot of jobs, and so about a third of the people living in ancient Greece were slaves. Most people in ancient Greece who were slaves worked in the fields, plowing and planting seeds and harvesting wheat and barley and olives. Both men and women worked in as slaves in factories or small shops, making shoes or shields or pottery or leather or weaving cloth. A slave nanny taking the baby (see the loom behind her?) A smaller number of people worked as enslaved servants in the houses of their owners. or
Göbekli Tepe The function of the structures is not yet clear. The most common opinion, shared by excavator Klaus Schmidt, is that they are early neolithic sanctuaries. Discovery The site was first noted in a survey conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago in 1963. In 1994, Klaus Schmidt, now of the German Archaeological Institute, who had previously been working at Nevalı Çori, was looking for another site to lead a dig. The following year, he began excavating there in collaboration with the Şanlıurfa Museum. Dating View of site and excavation The imposing stratigraphy of Göbekli Tepe attests to many centuries of activity, beginning at least as early as the epipaleolithic, or Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA), in the 10th millennium BC. There are a number of radiocarbon dates (presented with one standard deviation errors and calibrations to BCE): The Hd samples are from charcoal in the lowest levels of the site and would date the active phase of occupation. Plateau
Food in Ancient Greece The Greek diet consisted of foods that were easily raised in the rocky terrain of Greece’s landscape. Breakfast was eaten just after sunrise and consisted of bread dipped in wine. Lunch was again bread dipped in wine along with some olives, figs, cheese or dried fish. Supper was the main meal of each day. It was eaten near sunset. It consisted of vegetables, fruit, fish, and possibly honey cakes. Fish was the main source of protein in the Greek diet. Wine was the main drink in ancient Greece. The Greeks did not have any eating utensils, so they ate with their hands. Men often gathered for dinner parties called symposiums. Daily Life in Ancient Greece Children Clothing Fashion Food Home Life Marriage Men and Women's Roles Shopping Women Historyphoto101.com - Great History Photos, Right Price Follow our updates on Facebook or Twitter Pictures on this page are for viewing only. Please see Pictures Galleries for Royalty Free images for Educational uses. See Our New Photo Site HistoryPhoto101.com
Anatolia Coordinates: Definition The traditional definition of Anatolia within modern Turkey The Anatolian peninsula, also called Asia Minor, is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Sea of Marmara to the northwest, which separates Anatolia from Thrace in Europe. However, following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, Anatolia was defined by the Turkish government as being effectively co-terminous with Asian Turkey. Turkey's First Geography Congress in 1941 created two regions to the east of the Gulf of Iskenderun-Black Sea line named the Eastern Anatolia Region and the Southeastern Anatolia Region, the former largely corresponding to the western part of the Armenian Highland, the latter to the northern part of the Mesopotamian plain. Etymology In English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. 1369. History Prehistory and antiquity Ancient regions of Anatolia (500 BC)
Ancient Greece Çatalhöyük Çatalhöyük (Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtaɫhøjyc]; also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; çatal is Turkish for "fork", höyük for "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000BC. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date. In July 2012, it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Çatalhöyük is located overlooking the Konya Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya (ancient Iconium) in Turkey, approximately 140 km (87 mi) from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan. Archaeology The site was first excavated by James Mellaart in 1958. As of 2012 Ashley Morgan Lingle is leading an international team of conservators coming from Cardiff University and University College London. Culture On-site restoration of a typical interior Çatalhöyük was composed entirely of domestic buildings, with no obvious public buildings.
Ancient Greece - History, mythology, art, war, culture, society, and architecture. Greek Alphabet The letters in the Greek alphabet presented below are used for printed Ancient Greek texts. The earliest Greek texts that have survived were written with a radically different script called Linear B. For a detailed and wonderfully well argued discussion of the origins of the Greek alphabet, see Roger D. Woodard’s book, Greek Writing from Knossos to Homer. You can find fonts for displaying or writing Greek text as well as utilities for converting older fonts to the new Unicode standarde on our fonts page. Three sets of pronunciation suggestions are given in the table below: first the pronunciation of each letter in Modern Greek, then the reconstructed Hellenistic Koine pronunciation, and finally the reconstructed pronunciation for the Classical period (before about 350 BCE). The Erasmian pronunciation used in many schools to teach Biblical Greek and sometimes even Classical Greek is not given on this page. Modern th as in then (but not thin. Modern th as in thin, but not in then. Roger D.