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Thorium

Thorium
(Updated March 2014) Thorium is more abundant in nature than uranium.It is fertile rather than fissile, and can only be used as a fuel in conjunction with a fissile material such as recycled plutonium.Thorium fuels can breed fissile uranium-233 to be used in various kinds of nuclear reactors.Molten salt reactors are well suited to thorium fuel, as normal fuel fabrication is avoided. The use of thorium as a new primary energy source has been a tantalizing prospect for many years. Extracting its latent energy value in a cost-effective manner remains a challenge, and will require considerable R&D investment. This is occurring preeminently in China, with modest US support. Nature and sources of thorium Thorium is a naturally-occurring, slightly radioactive metal discovered in 1828 by the Swedish chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. When pure, thorium is a silvery white metal that retains its lustre for several months. Thorium as a nuclear fuel Related:  Thorium Nuclear Power

Green nuclear power coming to Norway Thorium-fuelled reactors might be the key to a safer, cleaner power supply Credit: Justin Randall SYDNEY: Safer, cleaner nuclear power is a step closer to reality after Norway’s state-owned energy company, Statkraft, this week announced plans to investigate building a thorium-fuelled nuclear reactor. Statkraft (which translates to “state power”) announced an alliance with regional power providers Vattenfall in Sweden, and Fortum in Finland, along with Norwegian energy investment company, Scatec AS, in a bid to produce the thorium-fuelled plant. Thorium (Th-232), has been hailed as a ‘greener’ alternative to traditional nuclear fuels, such as uranium and plutonium, because thorium is incapable of producing the runaway chain reaction which in a uranium-fuelled reactor can cause a catastrophic meltdown. To date, thorium has seen only limited application, such as by U.S. company, Thorium Power, which produces mixed uranium-thorium fuel for use in conventional nuclear reactors.

La France nucleaire/Nuclear France: THORIUM (FRANCAIS) Description : métal naturel Isotopes : le thorium naturel comporte le thorium 232, le thorium 228, et d'autres isotopes en petites quantités Production : extraction et traitement de minerais tels que uranothorianite et monazite Utilisation : production d'uranium 233 par irradiation du thorium 232 Radioactivité : thorium 232 est un émetteur alpha très radiotoxique Commentaires : thorium 232 est une matière fertile ; les descendants comprennent radon 220 (thoron), bismuth 212, et thallium 208 Le thorium, un métal, se trouve naturellement dans des minerais divers, dont la monazite, la bastnaésite et l'uranothorianite. A l'état naturel, le thorium est un mélange de thorium 232, de thorium 228 et en petites quantités, mais variables, de quatre autres isotopes. Production Utilisation Le thorium 232 comme l'uranium 228 est fertile. Côté civil, certains réacteurs peuvent utiliser le thorium 232 comme matière fertile et l'uranium 235 comme matière fissile. Santé Sources françaises

New age nuclear Credit: Justin Randall What if we could build a nuclear reactor that offered no possibility of a meltdown, generated its power inexpensively, created no weapons-grade by-products, and burnt up existing high-level waste as well as old nuclear weapon stockpiles? And what if the waste produced by such a reactor was radioactive for a mere few hundred years rather than tens of thousands? It may sound too good to be true, but such a reactor is indeed possible, and a number of teams around the world are now working to make it a reality. What makes this incredible reactor so different is its fuel source: thorium. Named after Thor, the warlike Norse god of thunder, thorium could ironically prove a potent instrument of peace as well as a tool to soothe the world’s changing climate. But nuclear power comes with its own challenges. A thorium reactor is different. That may not sound like much, but small changes in the global average can mask more dramatic localised disruptions in climate.

CANDU Energy Inc. | Candu Signs Expanded Agreement with China to Further Develop Recycled Uranium and Thorium Fuelled CANDU Reactors MISSISSAUGA, ON, Aug. 2, 2012 /CNW/ - Candu Energy Inc. has signed an expanded agreement with China National Nuclear Corporation's subsidiary companies, Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Company (TQNPC), China North Nuclear Fuel Corporation (CNNFC) and Nuclear Power Institute of China (NPIC) to continue co-operation in the development of recycled uranium and thorium as alternative fuels for new CANDU® reactors. With a 24-month duration, the agreement is expected to result in a detailed conceptual design of the Advanced Fuel CANDU Reactor (AFCR). The AFCR is a further evolution of the successful CANDU 6® and Generation III Enhanced CANDU 6®, which is optimized for use of recycled uranium and thorium fuel. "Candu is committed to customer-driven partnerships and innovation, and we will continue to work closely with the Chinese regulator as well as our end-customer throughout this process," said Ala Alizadeh, Candu's Senior Vice President of Marketing & Business Development.

TopStocks > ILUKA RESOURCES LIMITED > ILU's thorium reserves Thorium pushed as uranium alternative 07 Nov, 2011 03:00 AM A SCIENTIFIC movement to promote thorium as a nuclear fuel, due to its abundance and improved safety, is developing around the world and Australia could lead the way. The Sydney scientist Reza Hashemi-Nezhad has argued for more than a decade for the benefits of thorium when used in an accelerator-driven nuclear reactor that operates at subcritical conditions. ''You cannot have an accident similar to Chernobyl,'' Dr Hashemi-Nezhad, the director of the Institute of Nuclear Science at the University of Sydney, said. With the world's largest reserves of the radioactive mineral, Australia could be a leader in developing and adopting the technology. ''It is completely proven and feasible,'' Dr Hashemi-Nezhad said. Unlike uranium, thorium cannot undergo nuclear fission by itself, and must be bombarded with neutrons from a particle accelerator to start the nuclear chain reaction that produces energy.

Thorium fuel cycle The thorium fuel cycle is a nuclear fuel cycle that uses the naturally abundant isotope of thorium, 232Th, as the fertile material. In the reactor, 232Th is transmuted into the fissile artificial uranium isotope 233U which is the nuclear fuel. Unlike natural uranium, natural thorium contains only trace amounts of fissile material (such as 231Th), which are insufficient to initiate a nuclear chain reaction. Additional fissile material or another neutron source are necessary to initiate the fuel cycle. In a thorium-fueled reactor, 232Th absorbs neutrons eventually to produce 233U. This parallels the process in uranium breeder reactors whereby fertile 238U absorbs neutrons to form fissile 239Pu. The thorium fuel cycle claims several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle, including thorium's greater abundance, superior physical and nuclear properties, better resistance to nuclear weapons proliferation[1][2][3] and reduced plutonium and actinide production.[3] History[edit] [edit]

Thorium - EniG. Tableau périodique des éléments Nombre atomique:90 Groupe:3 Période:7 Configuration électronique:[Rn] 6d2 7s2 Nombre d'oxydation:+4 Électronégativité:1.3 Rayon atomique / pm:179.8 Masse atomique relatives:232.03806 ± 0.00002 Le thorium a été découvert par Jöns Jacob Berzelius (SE) en 1828. Densité / g dm-3:11720 (293 K) Volume molaire / cm3mol-1:19.80 (293 K) Résistivité électrique / μΩcm:13 (20 °C) Conductibilité thermique / W m-1K-1:54 Point de fusion / °C:1750 Point d'ébullition / °C:4788 Enthalpie de fusion / kJ mol-1:19.2 Enthalpie d'évaporation / kJ mol-1:513.67 Chaleur d'atomisation / kJ mol-1:598.65 Energie de première ionisation / kJ mol-1:608.51 Energie de deuxième ionisation / kJ mol-1:1109.59 Energie de troisième ionisation / kJ mol-1:1929.72 dans l'atmosphère / ppm:- dans la croute terrestre / ppm:3.5 dans les océans / ppm:0.0007 Structure cristalline: cubique à toute face centrée Dimension de la cellule unitaire / pm: a=508.42 Groupe d'espace: Fm3m IsotopeMasse atomique relativesPourcentage massique (%) 229Th229.031755(3)* Th4+ + 4e-

Reactor Thorium reactors would be cheap. The primary cost in nuclear reactors traditionally is the huge safety requirements. Regarding meltdown in a thorium reactor, Rubbia writes, “Both the EA and MF can be effectively protected against military diversions and exhibit an extreme robustness against any conceivable accident, always with benign consequences. Like any nuclear reactor, thorium reactors will be hot and radioactive, necessitating shielding. Because thorium reactors present no proliferation risk, and because they solve the safety problems associated with earlier reactors, they will be able to use reasonable rather than obsessive standards for security and reliability. Because thorium reactors will make nuclear reactors more decentralized. Smaller reactors make power generation convenient in two ways: decreasing staffing costs by dropping them close to zero, and eliminating the bulky infrastructure required for larger plants. Even smaller reactors might be built.

Management Team // Thorium Power Canada Inc. Thorium Power Canada Inc. David Kerr, Partner and Chief Executive Officer David is an accomplished executive, manager and corporate leader with over 30 years of experience in the power generation and infrastructure industries. As a founder of one of the largest Canadian renewable power companies, David successfully grew the publicly traded company from an $80 million IPO in 1997 to over $ 1 billion in assets. As an early participant in the independent power producers industry, David has been very active in the development of green-field power and infrastructure projects throughout North America and internationally. In his career, David has successfully built strong relationships within the independent power sector, capital markets, public utilities, government agencies and community stakeholders. J. David is an experienced senior counsel and has been practicing law for over 20 years. Christopher J. Mr. Syed Hassan, Director of Middle East Operations Mr. Mr. Hector A. Dr. Dr. Dr. Gary S.

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