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Brain decoding: Reading minds

Brain decoding: Reading minds
Jack Gallant perches on the edge of a swivel chair in his lab at the University of California, Berkeley, fixated on the screen of a computer that is trying to decode someone's thoughts. On the left-hand side of the screen is a reel of film clips that Gallant showed to a study participant during a brain scan. And on the right side of the screen, the computer program uses only the details of that scan to guess what the participant was watching at the time. Anne Hathaway's face appears in a clip from the film Bride Wars, engaged in heated conversation with Kate Hudson. The algorithm confidently labels them with the words 'woman' and 'talk', in large type. Another clip appears — an underwater scene from a wildlife documentary. “This is a manatee, but it doesn't know what that is,” says Gallant, talking about the program as one might a recalcitrant student. Listen Neuroscientists can predict what a person is seeing or dreaming by looking at their brain activity. Beyond blobology Real world

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theories Theories of Colour Vision Theories of Colour Vision There are two major theories that explain and guide research on colour vision: the trichromatic theory also known as the Young-Helmholtz theory, and the opponent-process theory. These two theories are complementary and explain processes that operate at different levels of the visual system. Antibiotic Resistant Superbug Arrives In America A new superbug resistant to our antibiotic of last resort has shown up in the U.S. We look at the threat, and our dwindling antibiotic options. On Wednesday, May 26, 2016, U.S. military officials reported the first U.S. human case of bacteria resistant to an antibiotic used as a last resort drug. The 49-year-old woman has recovered from an infection of E. coli resistant to colistin.

‘Neural Fingerprints’ of Memory Associations Hint at Mind Reading Researchers have long been interested in discovering the ways that human brains represent thoughts through a complex interplay of electrical signals. Recent improvements in brain recording and statistical methods have given researchers unprecedented insight into the physical processes underlying thoughts. For example, researchers have begun to show that it is possible to use brain recordings to reconstruct aspects of an image or movie clip someone is viewing, a sound someone is hearing or even the text someone is reading. A new study by University of Pennsylvania and Thomas Jefferson University scientists brings this work one step closer to actual mind reading by using brain recordings to infer the way people organize associations between words in their memories.

Brain-Mapping Pioneers Brain-Mapping Pioneers What would you do if you were a doctor and had patients who were missing pieces of their skulls? If you were Eduard Hitzig, a German doctor working at a military hospital in the 1860s, you'd conduct some experiments. Hitzig, working on patients who had pieces of their skulls blown away in battle, stimulated exposed brains with wires connected to a battery.

Antibiotic Resistance Action Center The Antibiotic Resistance Action Center (ARAC) was created to reduce antibiotic resistance worldwide. ARAC, housed in the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University, is led by microbiologist Dr. Lance Price, an internationally-recognized and respected scientist pioneering the use of genomic epidemiology to understand how the misuse of antibiotics in food animals affects public health. “Our central mission is to bring together epidemiologists, microbiologists, communications experts, policy experts, together under a single roof, working day in and day out, to curb these superbugs and to protect antibiotics." -Dr. 5-HT receptor Serotonin receptors are found in almost all animals and are even known to regulate longevity and behavioral aging in the primitive nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans.[4][5] Classification[edit] With the exception of the 5-HT3 receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel, all other serotonin receptors are G protein-coupled receptors that activate an intracellular second messenger cascade to produce an excitatory or inhibitory response. In 2014 a novel 5-HT receptor was described that was isolated from the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, and named pr5-HT8.

The Hebb Legacy The Hebb Legacy RAYMOND M. KLEIN, Dalhousie University Donald Olding Hebb (1904-1985) was, during his lifetime, an extraordinarily influential figure for the discipline of psychology. His principled opposition to radical behaviourism and emphasis on understanding what goes on between stimulus and response (perception, learning, thinking) helped clear the way for the cognitive revolution.

Understanding Immunotherapy Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is a type of cancer treatment designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses substances either made by the body or in a laboratory to improve or restore immune system function. Immunotherapy may work in the following ways: Trust at first sight: evidence from ERPs The results reported in the previous section concerned the ERPs elicited by the participants’ subjective judgments, independently of the pre-rated face category. To investigate whether and to what extent these evaluations might depend on inherent properties of the presented faces, additional analyses on pre-rated trustworthy and untrustworthy faces (Face-category), independently of behavioural judgments, were carried out for different time windows. These ANOVAs were conducted factoring Trustworthiness-Face-category (Untrustworthy, Trustworthy) and Electrode (two electrodes, depending on the considered ERP component). Furthermore, separate ANOVAs were employed to analyze the trustworthiness effect when face judgments are congruent with the pre-rated face classification (e.g. untrustworthy faces judged congruently as untrustworthy).

A Brief Biography of the Cortical Column Introduction – The Cortical Column “Problem” In a theoretical paper, H. L. Seldon (2005) puts forth an explanation for human cognitive abilities, which he calls the “balloon hypothesis”. Seldon’s argument, briefly, is that upregulation of white matter production (especially phospholipids) is the main driving force behind the expansion of human cortex, which he describes as like inflating a balloon. Laboratory Animal Research Training Programs From individual staff training in laboratory animal care and husbandry to group training in the operation of complete aquatic research systems, Charles River can tailor a program to suit your specific needs. Our training team is dedicated to providing a learning environment for competency-based training. We offer both didactic and hands-on instruction in actual and simulated research environments, as well as synchronous and asynchronous e-learning course design and deployment. We offer over 85 core training programs in the following areas:

Antidepressant warnings tied to suicide attempts in youths NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A move by U.S. health officials to warn the public of an increased risk of suicidal thoughts among young people taking antidepressants was actually associated with an increase in suicide attempts, suggests a new study. It could be that doctors avoided prescribing those medications after media reports of the warnings and children and teens with depression went untreated, researchers suggest in the medical journal BMJ. “In this case, we think we’re seeing the decreased use of the medication in kids who had appropriate use of the medications,” said Stephen Soumerai, the study’s senior author from the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute in Boston. Between 2003 and 2004 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued warnings that antidepressants were tied to an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in about one percent of children and teens. The agency required the warning to be printed on antidepressant drug labels in October 2004.

History of neuroscience: Ramon y Cajal — Neuroscientifically Challenged Although many consider him now to be the "father of modern neuroscience," when Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) was a boy he dreamed of one day being an artist. His father, who was otherwise very nurturing to Cajal's intellectual development, discouraged the expression of Cajal's artistic aspirations. He saw art as a fruitless endeavor, and he was nothing if not a pragmatist. Nevertheless, Cajal found ways to surreptitiously obtain art supplies (for example, by scraping paint from walls to extract color from it) and continued to practice his art in secrecy. Fortunately for the neuroscientific community, Cajal also heeded his father's advice and ended up attending medical school. After graduating, Cajal had a prodigious impact on brain science.

7 Alarming Things Your Dreams Tell You About Your Mental Health There is a whole field of study that is entirely dedicated to understanding and interpreting our dreams. Yes, those vivid thoughts that you have as you sleep can actually be used to tell us a lot of information about the state of our mental health. So, what are the main things that we should be looking out for? Should you also be worried about dreams and what they mean? Vivid Dreams Can Mean You Are Highly Stressed. If you have some very vivid and crazy dreams, then it could be a sign that you are suffering from stress and clearly this is an issue that needs to be addressed.