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Current Topics in Public Health

Current Topics in Public Health
Edited by Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, ISBN 978-953-51-1121-4, 742 pages, Publisher: InTech, Chapters published May 15, 2013 under CC BY 3.0 licenseDOI: 10.5772/56648 Public Health is regarded as the basis and cornerstone of health, generally and in medicine. Related:  Documents anglophones

Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.44 no.1 São Paulo 2013 Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh Fecal indicators and bacterial pathogens in bottled water from Dhaka, Bangladesh W. AhmedI,II; R. ICSIRO Land and Water, Ecosciences Precinct, Boggo Road, Brisbane, Australia IIDepartment of Environment and Resource Management, Indooroopilly, Brisbane, Australia IIISchool of Life Sciences, Independent University Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh IVDepartment of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh VScience and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia Send correspondence to Forty-six bottled water samples representing 16 brands from Dhaka, Bangladesh were tested for the numbers of total coliforms, fecal indicator bacteria (i.e., thermotolerant Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) and potential bacterial pathogens (i.e., Aeromonas hydrophil, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp.). Key words: bottled water, fecal indicator bacteria, quantitative PCR, bacterial pathogens, public health risk.

FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE 03/10/13 Competition Aims to Identify, Implement Water Innovations in Food and Agriculture. News | October 3, 2013 Imagine H2O, a nonprofit organization that provides a path-to-market platform for early-stage water technology companies. announced Oct. 1 that it is accepting applications from water entrepreneurs worldwide for its 2013 Food & Agriculture Competition. The fifth annual competition seeks to identify and support promising water innovations in the food and agriculture sector. The deadline to submit applications is November 15; applications can be submitted here. Winners will be announced March 22, 2014, at which time the top companies will present their innovations to the program’s pilot partners. On its Food & Agriculture Program web page, Imagine H2O provides two important statistics: A 2012 UN World Water Assessment Program survey indicates that agriculture currently accounts for more than 70% of global water usage.

EFSA 06/11/13 EFSA engages with stakeholders on aquatic ecotoxicology guidance Nouvelle - Parma , 6 novembre 2013 Info Session on Applications - Pesticides - Workshop with stakeholders on EFSA’s Scientific Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR) “Guidance Document on tiered risk assessment for plant protection products for aquatic organisms in edge-of-field surface waters” EFSA held a meeting with around 50 specialists in the field of pesticides to present and explain its recently published guidance document on aquatic ecotoxicology. The Authority also discussed key issues raised during the public consultation on the draft guidance which took place from December 2012 to February 2013. Delegates from industry, NGOs, Member State authorities and the European Commission were welcomed to the event by Luc Mohimont, deputy head of the EFSA’s Pesticides Unit, and Karine Lheureux, head of the Applications Desk Unit.

J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Sep;121:37-45. Spatio-temporal dynamics of parasites infecting Diporeia spp. (Amphipoda, Gammaridae) in southern Lake Michigan (USA). MOTHER NATURE NETWORK 18/02/11 How polluted is U.S. drinking water? U.S. tap water is some of the cleanest on Earth, generally safe from the microbes and chemicals that have plagued humans' water supplies for millennia. While much of the planet relies on paltry, polluted drinking water, Americans can fill a glass without fear of cryptosporidium, chromium or chlordane. This hasn't always been the case, however — and in many parts of the country, it still isn't. More than 40 years after the first Earth Day ushered in a new era of environmental awareness, millions of Americans still drink dangerous tap water without even knowing it. The U.S. government had virtually no oversight of drinking-water quality before the 1970s, leaving the job to a patchwork of local laws that were often weakly enforced and widely ignored. It wasn't until Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act in 1974 that the newly formed EPA could set national limits on certain contaminants in tap water. In treatment Something in the water Underground economy Bottle shock Image credits

UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE – 2011 - Thèse en ligne : Evaluation of an Intensive Data Collection System for Tennessee Surface Water Abstract Water quality regulators, such as the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, are challenged by data scarcity when identifying surface water quality impairment causes and pollutant sources. Surface water quality model users also seek to identify pollutant sources and design and place best management practices to efficiently improve water quality, but have insufficient data for model calibration. The two primary objectives of this research were to evaluate the system power demand and determine whether a large water quality dataset improved impairment cause and source identification. Recommended Citation Armstrong, Hannah Marie, "Evaluation of an Intensive Data Collection System for Tennessee Surface Water Quality Assessment and Watershed Model Calibration. " Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee, 2011.

Arabian Journal of Chemistry Available online 25 June 2015 Controlling contamination for determination of ultra-trace levels of priority pollutants chlorophenols in environmental water matrices Abstract Recently, environmental scientists have been focused their attention on the occurrence of emerging contaminants in water, such as disinfection by products (DBPs), including chlorophenols. These pollutants can be a public health problem due to their carcinogenic properties. Keywords Water quality; Chlorophenols; Extraction; Liquid chromatography Abbreviations UHPLC/PDA, ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a photodiode array detector; SPE, solid phase extraction; CPs, chlorinated phenols; 2-CP, 2-chlorophenol; 2,4-DCP, 2,4-dichlorophenol; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; MAC, maximum admissible concentration; CE, capillary electrophoresis; LC, liquid chromatography; GC, gas chromatography; FID, flame-ionization detection; MS, mass spectrometry detection; SPME, solid-phase microextraction; SDME, single drop microextraction; LOD, limit of detection; LOQ, limit of quantification; RSD, relative standard deviation; RE, accuracy (relative error); R, extraction recoveries 1.

Chemosphere Volume 112, October 2014, Emerging risks from ballast water treatment: The run-up to the International Ballast Water Management Convention Open Access Highlights Potential impacts of the International Ballast Water Management Convention are discussed. Chemical ballast water treatment effectively reduces the risk of aquatic species invasions. Oxidative water treatment forms disinfection by-products that may harm humans and marine biota. The established risk assessment disregards multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Holistic assessment of ballast water management needs to cover many additional factors. Abstract Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. Keywords Disinfection by-products; Environmental health; Genotoxicity; Marine pollution; Risk assessment; Ballast water treatment 1. Almost two thirds of traded goods worldwide are transported by ship (Kumar and Hoffmann, 2002).

Ann. Ist. Super. Sanità vol.48 n.4 Roma Oct./Dec. 2012 Emerging and potentially emerging viruses in water environments Emerging and potentially emerging viruses in water environments Infezioni emergenti e potenzialmente emergenti in ambienti acquatici Giuseppina La Rosa; Marta Fratini; Simonetta della Libera; Marcello Iaconelli; Michele Muscillo Dipartimento di Ambiente e Connessa Prevenzione Primaria, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy Address for correspondence Among microorganisms, viruses are best fit to become emerging pathogens since they are able to adapt not only by mutation but also through recombination and reassortment and can thus become able to infect new hosts and to adjust to new environments. Key words: viruses, waterborne, emerging, drinking water, recreational water. I virus sono tra i principali agenti di infezioni emergenti, in quanto sono in grado di acquisire nuove caratteristiche biologiche attraverso fenomeni di mutazione, ricombinazione e riassortimento genico, adattandosi così a nuovi ospiti e nuove nicchie ecologiche. Norovirus Enterovirus Hepatitis A virus Adenovirus

Water 2013, 5(3), 1346-1365; Pharmaceuticals in the Built and Natural Water Environment of the United States 1 Chemistry Program, College of Arts and Sciences, Grand Canyon University, Phoenix, AZ 85017, USA 2 Center for Environmental Security, Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, P.O. Box 875904, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904, USA 3 Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5904, USA 4 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Received: 22 June 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 28 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013 The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. MDPI and ACS Style Deo, R.P.; Halden, R.U. View more citation formats AMA Style Deo RP, Halden RU. Chicago/Turabian Style

PLOS 07/05/14 Contamination of Groundwater Systems in the US and Canada by Enteric Pathogens, 1990–2013: A Review and Pooled-Analysis Abstract Background Up to 150 million North Americans currently use a groundwater system as their principal drinking water source. These systems are a potential source of exposure to enteric pathogens, contributing to the burden of waterborne disease. Waterborne disease outbreaks have been associated with US and Canadian groundwater systems over the past two decades. Methods and Principal Findings A combined review and pooled-analysis approach was used to investigate groundwater contamination in Canada and the US from 1990 to 2013; fifty-five studies met eligibility criteria. Conclusions This review illustrates how groundwater study design and location are critical for subsequent data interpretation and use. Citation: Hynds PD, Thomas MK, Pintar KDM (2014) Contamination of Groundwater Systems in the US and Canada by Enteric Pathogens, 1990–2013: A Review and Pooled-Analysis. Editor: Martyn Kirk, The Australian National University, Australia Copyright: © 2014 Hynds et al. Introduction

FOOD SAFETY MAGAZINE - OCT/NOV 2015 - Back to the Future: Controlling Microbial Contamination in Water Food Safety Insider | October/November 2015 By Weber Scientific Although pathogen detection, total counts, hygiene monitoring, etc. have deservedly received much attention for food products and on food plant surfaces, fewer methods have addressed microbial contamination in water. The evolution of ATP measurements is a benchmark for our entire rapid methods industry. Dr. Since results are easily and quickly available, one can use Aqua-Snap in water to provide an early indication of process failure (with regard to both the product and cleaning). In order to see how this works, consider Dr. Not yet convinced? AquaSnap can be used to advantage all over the food plant. AquaSnap and EnSURE are produced by Hygiena and distributed by Weber Scientific. Categories: Testing and Analysis: Methods, Microbiological

PLOS 02/01/14 Enteric Pathogens in Stored Drinking Water and on Caregiver’s Hands in Tanzanian Households with and without Reported Cases of Child Diarrhea Abstract Background Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in young children. Diarrheal pathogens are transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and for children the majority of this transmission is thought to occur within the home. Methods and Findings The presence of molecular markers for three enteric viruses (enterovirus, adenovirus, and rotavirus), seven Escherichia coli virulence genes (ECVG), and human-specific Bacteroidales was assessed in hand rinses and household stored drinking water in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Conclusions The prevalence of enteric pathogen genes and the human-specific Bacteroidales fecal marker in stored water and on hands suggests extensive environmental contamination within homes both with and without reported child diarrhea. Citation: Mattioli MC, Boehm AB, Davis J, Harris AR, Mrisho M, Pickering AJ (2014) Enteric Pathogens in Stored Drinking Water and on Caregiver’s Hands in Tanzanian Households with and without Reported Cases of Child Diarrhea. Methods

FRONTIERS IN MICROBIOLOGY 01/02/16 Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges Introduction The World Health Organization [WHO] (2006) stated that “Water entering the distribution system must be microbiologically safe and ideally should also be biologically stable.” There is general consensus that the term ‘biological stability’ in this context refers to the concept of maintaining microbial water quality from the point of drinking water production up to the point of consumption (Rittmann and Snoeyink, 1984; van der Kooij, 2000). Unwanted changes in microbial quality of drinking water can have adverse effects on distribution system and consumers. For example, during distribution, excessive growth of bacteria can lead to deterioration of drinking water quality in terms of safety (e.g., pathogens), consumer’s perception (e.g., discolouration) and operational aspects (e.g., biocorrosion; Szewzyk et al., 2000; Vreeburg et al., 2004; Sun et al., 2014). Problems Associated with Bacterial Growth in Drinking Water Distribution Systems FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3.

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