Schizophrenia (/ˌskɪtsɵˈfrɛniə/ or /ˌskɪtsɵˈfriːniə/) is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and lack of motivation. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences. Genetics and early environment, as well as psychological and social processes, appear to be important contributory factors. Some recreational and prescription drugs appear to cause or worsen symptoms. The many possible combinations of symptoms have triggered debate about whether the diagnosis represents a single disorder or a number of separate syndromes. Symptoms Self-portrait of a person with schizophrenia, representing that individual's perception of the distorted experience of reality in the disorder Positive and negative Onset Causes Genetic Environment Substance use Mechanisms Diagnosis
August NattererAugust Natterer (1868–1933), also known as Neter, was a schizophrenic German outsider artist. Hexenkopf (The Witch's Head), ca. 1915 Biography August Natterer, given the pseudonym Neter by his psychiatrist to protect him and his family from the immense social stigma associated with mental illness at the time, was born in 1868 in Schornreute near Ravensburg, Germany, the son of a clerk and the youngest of nine children. I saw a white spot in the clouds absolutely close – all the clouds paused – then the white spot departed and stood all the time like a board in the sky. This ordeal led to a suicide attempt and committal to the first of what would be several mental asylums occupied during the remaining twenty-six years of his life. Artistic works Natterer once claimed that Axle of the World, with Rabbit, which can be seen to the right, had predicted World War I. Max Ernst's Oedipus was influenced by Natterer's piece Miraculous Shepherd. References
Theory of mindDefinition Theory of mind is a theory insofar as the mind is not directly observable. The presumption that others have a mind is termed a theory of mind because each human can only intuit the existence of his/her own mind through introspection, and no one has direct access to the mind of another. It is typically assumed that others have minds by analogy with one's own, and this assumption is based on the reciprocal nature of social interaction, as observed in joint attention, the functional use of language, and the understanding of others' emotions and actions. Having a theory of mind allows one to attribute thoughts, desires, and intentions to others, to predict or explain their actions, and to posit their intentions. Theory of mind appears to be an innate potential ability in humans; one requiring social and other experience over many years for its full development. Philosophical and psychological roots Development Empirical investigation Autism
Home | SPINZ - Suicide Prevention Information New ZealandSuicide Prevention Information New Zealand provides information on safe and effective suicide prevention activities. We aim to improve your understanding of suicide prevention and your capacity to help those around you. We don't provide counselling or direct support services. If you are feeling suicidal, or know someone who needs help, check the help options on our website, or get in touch with our Resource & Information Service who can point you in the right direction to find help. We are a non-government, national information service run by the Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand. Google+
SchizophreniaDefinition Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may seem like they have lost touch with reality. Signs and Symptoms Symptoms of schizophrenia usually start between ages 16 and 30. The symptoms of schizophrenia fall into three categories: positive, negative, and cognitive. Positive symptoms: “Positive” symptoms are psychotic behaviors not generally seen in healthy people. HallucinationsDelusionsThought disorders (unusual or dysfunctional ways of thinking)Movement disorders (agitated body movements) Negative symptoms: “Negative” symptoms are associated with disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors. “Flat affect” (reduced expression of emotions via facial expression or voice tone)Reduced feelings of pleasure in everyday lifeDifficulty beginning and sustaining activitiesReduced speaking Risk Factors There are several factors that contribute to the risk of developing schizophrenia. Antipsychotics
EgocentrismEgocentrism is the inability to differentiate between self and other. More specifically, it is the inability to untangle subjective schemas from objective reality; an inability to understand or assume any perspective other than their own. Egocentrism and absolutism differ in the sense that an egotist's opinion must always allow everything to center around themselves, while an absolutist can form an opinion that does not center themselves, yet believes their idea and opinion is non contest. Although egocentric behaviors are less prominent in adulthood, the existence of some forms of egocentrism in adulthood indicates that overcoming egocentrism may be a lifelong development that never achieves completion. Therefore, egocentrism is found across the life span: in infancy  early childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. It contributes to the human cognitive development by helping children develop theory of mind and self-identity formation. See also
liveto100.co.nz | Health & Wellbeing for New ZealandersTeen Slender Man Stabber Claims Sexual Abuse in Hospital, Denied House ArrestLast week, a Wisconsin judge denied the teenage girls involved in the so-called "Slender Man stabbing" their request to live under house arrest. The girls were hoping to return home while awaiting trial, but instead both will stay in custody, their bail set at $500,000 each. Thirteen-year-old Morgan Geyser and 14-year-old Anissa Weier were arrested in May 2014 after reportedly stabbing their friend, Payton Leutner, 19 times. Leutner survived. Geyser and Weier said they were acting under the orders of Slender Man, a fictional Internet character who they claim told them to murder Leutner. According to police, the stabbing occurred after a sleepover on Saturday, May 30, 2014; in the morning, the three girls went to a nearby park, where Geyser and Weier lured Leutner into the woods. "Once there, one suspect held the victim down while the other suspect stabbed her 19 times," Police Chief Russell Jack said in a press conference. Geyser openly wept at the judge's decision.
Emergency psychiatryEmergency psychiatry is the clinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings. Conditions requiring psychiatric interventions may include attempted suicide, substance abuse, depression, psychosis, violence or other rapid changes in behavior. Psychiatric emergency services are rendered by professionals in the fields of medicine, nursing, psychology and social work. The demand for emergency psychiatric services has rapidly increased throughout the world since the 1960s, especially in urban areas. Care for patients in situations involving emergency psychiatry is complex. Individuals may arrive in psychiatric emergency service settings through their own voluntary request, a referral from another health professional, or through involuntary commitment. Definition Delivery of Services History Since the 1960s the demand for emergency psychiatric services has endured a rapid growth due to deinstitutionalization both in Europe and the United States.