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Accelerator on a chip: Technology could spawn new generations of smaller, less expensive devices for science, medicine

Accelerator on a chip: Technology could spawn new generations of smaller, less expensive devices for science, medicine
In an advance that could dramatically shrink particle accelerators for science and medicine, researchers used a laser to accelerate electrons at a rate 10 times higher than conventional technology in a nanostructured glass chip smaller than a grain of rice. The achievement was reported today in Nature by a team including scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University. "We still have a number of challenges before this technology becomes practical for real-world use, but eventually it would substantially reduce the size and cost of future high-energy particle colliders for exploring the world of fundamental particles and forces," said Joel England, the SLAC physicist who led the experiments. "It could also help enable compact accelerators and X-ray devices for security scanning, medical therapy and imaging, and research in biology and materials science." Today's accelerators use microwaves to boost the energy of electrons.

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130927134714.htm

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Physicists Discover Geometry Underlying Particle Physics Physicists have discovered a jewel-like geometric object that dramatically simplifies calculations of particle interactions and challenges the notion that space and time are fundamental components of reality. “This is completely new and very much simpler than anything that has been done before,” said Andrew Hodges, a mathematical physicist at Oxford University who has been following the work. The revelation that particle interactions, the most basic events in nature, may be consequences of geometry significantly advances a decades-long effort to reformulate quantum field theory, the body of laws describing elementary particles and their interactions. Interactions that were previously calculated with mathematical formulas thousands of terms long can now be described by computing the volume of the corresponding jewel-like “amplituhedron,” which yields an equivalent one-term expression. Locality is the notion that particles can interact only from adjoining positions in space and time.

Breakthrough: The World’s First Carbon Nanotube Computer "'m just wondering that, with less and less electricity required to make these "switches" in a carbon-nanotube processor work, how vulnerable does it make them to being accidentally switched by the ambient, static electricity already in the atmosphere, like from thunderstorms or generated by household appliances, etc." That is one of the reasons why you when you open your computer, you ground yourself first before touching circuit boards. I assume these new circuits would be protected and shielded in the same manner as circuits made of silicon are now. And they'd be handled with the same precautions.

Laying down a discerning membrane One of the thinnest membranes ever made is also highly discriminating when it comes to the molecules going through it. Engineers at the University of South Carolina have constructed a graphene oxide membrane less than 2 nanometers thick with high permeation selectivity between hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas molecules. The selectivity is based on molecular size, the team reported in the journal Science. Hydrogen and helium pass relatively easily through the membrane, but carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide and methane move much more slowly.

If Time Were 2D… - From Quarks to Quasars Question: There are lots of articles written about trying to imagine a 4th dimension of space, but what would it be like to live in a universe with a 2nd dimension of time? The short answer: We simply don’t know. This question is a bit more complicated than talking about different spacial dimensions because we experience 3 dimensions of space, and so we can use what we know about life in one dimension (and how it changes when you have two dimensions) to make inferences about what 4 or more dimensions would be like. But it would be extremely difficult to imagine how things behave in 2 or 3 dimensions if we lived in a one dimensional universe (we would have nothing upon which to base our inferences). This is exactly the problem that we have with our 1d view of time.

HP Memristors Will Reinvent Computer Memory 'by 2014' By the end of 2012, HP may introduce a new breed of electrical building-block: the memristor. Image: Luke Kilpatrick/Flickr HP is two and half years away from offering hardware that stores data with memristors, a new breed of electrical building-block that could lead to servers and other devices that are far more efficient than today’s machines, according to report citing one of the technology’s inventors. As reported by The Register, at a recent conference in Oxnard, California, HP’s Stan Williams said that commercial memristor hardware will be available by the end of 2014 at the earliest. A company spokesman tells us that the company has not officially announced its plan for memristors.

Light completely stopped for a record-breaking minute - physics-math - 25 July 2013 The fastest thing in the universe has come to a complete stop for a record-breaking minute. At full pelt, light would travel about 18 million kilometres in that time – that's more than 20 round trips to the moon. "One minute is extremely, extremely long," says Thomas Krauss at the University of St Andrews, UK. "This is indeed a major milestone." The feat could allow secure quantum communications to work over long distances.

HP pulls memory Missing Link from bottle of beer More than 35 years ago, when the world assumed that circuits were crafted from three basic building blocks, a man named Leon Chua predicted the existence of a fourth. The capacitor, the resistor, and the inductor, he said, would be joined by something called the memristor. Today, scientists at HP Labs announced that this prediction was right on the money. After a good five years of work, HP Labs Fellow R.

Model describes universe with no big bang, no beginning, and no end (PhysOrg.com) -- By suggesting that mass, time, and length can be converted into one another as the universe evolves, Wun-Yi Shu has proposed a new class of cosmological models that may fit observations of the universe better than the current big bang model. What this means specifically is that the new models might explain the increasing acceleration of the universe without relying on a cosmological constant such as dark energy, as well as solve or eliminate other cosmological dilemmas such as the flatness problem and the horizon problem. Shu, an associate professor at National Tsing Hua University in Taiwan, explains in a study posted at arXiv.org that the new models emerge from a new perspective of some of the most basic entities: time, space, mass, and length. In his proposal, time and space can be converted into one another, with a varying speed of light as the conversion factor.

Ring Could Log Users In to Houses, Phones and Website as Soon as Next Month The need for more passwords that our feeble human brains struggle to remember can make it feel like we work for the machines instead of the other way around. Wearable, and even embeddable, login storage has emerged has a possible solution. After Google researchers floated the idea of a USB stick or a ring that would generate login keys, it appeared the Web giant would lead the way. But a UK project recently closed a $380,000 Kickstarter campaign, promising delivery of 61,000 password-bearing rings in September. The company, NFC Ring, makes a simple silver ring with two near-field communication transmitters inside it, storing access information that can potentially be used to unlock phones, cars or houses or even to log in to websites. One transmitter faces out and stores information that the user may want to share, such as his or her contact information.

Synthetic magnetic monopoles have been created in the lab A magnet always has a north and a south pole. Even if a magnet is cut in half down to the atomic level, magnetic fields are bipolar. However, in 1931 it was theorized that there are natural monopoles which help explain some of the peculiarities of magnetism. Motorola announces Project Ara, an open hardware platform with modular components ala Phonebloks Was just about to hit the hay for the evening when this came through the wire. Honestly, I’m not entirely sure I’m not still dreaming in my onesie, but here goes. Revealed in a press release just moments ago is Motorola’s ambitious open hardware platform dubbed Project Ara. You heard right, according to Motorola, they want to do to hardware, what Android has done to software. How?

Quantum Cloud Simulates Magnetic Monopole Physicists have created and photographed an isolated north pole — a monopole — in a simulated magnetic field, bringing to life a thought experiment that first predicted the existence of actual magnetic monopoles more than 80 years ago. In nature, north and south magnetic poles always go hand in hand. Cutting a bar magnet in half just creates two magnets, each of which still has two poles, rather than creating separate north and south poles on each half. Yet their electrostatic cousins, positive and negative charges, exist independently.

5D optical memory in glass could record the last evidence of civilization Using nanostructured glass, scientists at the University of Southampton have, for the first time, experimentally demonstrated the recording and retrieval processes of five dimensional digital data by femtosecond laser writing. The storage allows unprecedented parameters including 360 TB/disc data capacity, thermal stability up to 1000°C and practically unlimited lifetime. Coined as the 'Superman' memory crystal, as the glass memory has been compared to the "memory crystals" used in the Superman films, the data is recorded via self-assembled nanostructures created in fused quartz, which is able to store vast quantities of data for over a million years.

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