Spiritualism By 1853, when the popular song Spirit Rappings was published, Spiritualism was an object of intense curiosity. Spiritualism developed and reached its peak growth in membership from the 1840s to the 1920s, especially in English-speaking countries. By 1897, it was said to have more than eight million followers in the United States and Europe, mostly drawn from the middle and upper classes. The religion flourished for a half century without canonical texts or formal organization, attaining cohesion through periodicals, tours by trance lecturers, camp meetings, and the missionary activities of accomplished mediums. Beliefs Although various Spiritualist traditions have their own beliefs, known as Principles, there are some shared concepts: Mediumship and spirits Spiritualists believe in communicating with the spirits of discarnate humans. Compared with other religions Christian Protestantism Judaism Islam Spiritism Occult Origins
Jesus Jesus (/ˈdʒiːzəs/; Greek: Ἰησοῦς Iesous; 7–2 BC to 30–33 AD), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God. Christianity regards Jesus as the awaited Messiah (or "Christ") of the Old Testament and refers to him as Jesus Christ,[e] a name that is also used in non-Christian contexts. Etymology of names Since early Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ". The word Christ is derived from the Greek Χριστός (Christos), which is a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Meshiakh), meaning the "anointed" and usually transliterated into English as "Messiah". Christians designate Jesus as Christ because they believe he is the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). Chronology A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the crucifixion of Jesus. Life and teachings in the New Testament
Mysticism Index Contents Start Reading Page Index Text [Zipped] Evelyn Underhill (b. 6 Dec. 1875, d. 15 Jun 1941) was an English Anglo-Catholic writer who wrote extensively on Christian mysticism. A pacifist, novelist, and philosopher, she was widely read during the first half of the 20th century. This work, Mysticism , is not a textbook of the subject. She disagrees with William James' The Varieties of Religious Experience with his four-part division of the mystic state (ineffability, noetic quality, transcience, and passivity). Underhill maps out her own view of the mystic's journey into five parts: "Awakening of Self," "Purgation of Self," "Illumination," "the Dark Night of the Soul," and "the Unitative life." Title Page Preface to the Twelfth Edition Preface to the First Edition Part One: The Mystic Fact Part One: The Mystic Fact I. Part Two: The Mystic Way Part Two: The Mystic Way I. Indexes
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world". Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra), it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord), as its Supreme Being. Major features of Zoroastrianism, such as messianism, judgment after death, heaven and hell, and free will have influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, and Islam. Following the Iranian Revolution and the arrival of the Islamic theocracy in Iran, Zoroastrianism/Mazdayasna is having a strong revival amongst many Iranians who want to express discontent towards the dictatorial theocratic regime. Terminology The name Zoroaster is a Greek rendering of the name Zarathustra. Overview Theology Practices History Classical antiquity Late antiquity
Mysticism Votive plaque depicting elements of the Eleusinian Mysteries, discovered in the sanctuary at Eleusis (mid-4th century BC) Mysticism ( pronunciation ) is "a constellation of distinctive practices, discourses, texts, institutions, traditions, and experiences aimed at human transformation, variously defined in different traditions." The term "mysticism" has Western origins, with various, historically determined meanings. In modern times, "mysticism" has acquired a limited definition,[web 2] but a broad application,[web 2] as meaning the aim at the "union with the Absolute, the Infinite, or God". Since the 1960s, a scholarly debate has been ongoing in the scientific research of "mystical experiences" between perennial and constructionist approaches. Etymology "Mysticism" is derived from the Greek μυω, meaning "I conceal",[web 1] and its derivative μυστικός, mystikos, meaning 'an initiate'. Definitions Spiritual life and re-formation According to Gellmann, D.J. Enlightenment
Flood myth "The Deluge", frontispiece to Gustave Doré's illustrated edition of the Bible. Based on the story of Noah's Ark, this shows humans and a tiger doomed by the flood futilely attempting to save their children and cubs. A flood myth or deluge myth is a symbolic narrative in which a great flood is sent by a deity, or deities, to destroy civilization in an act of divine retribution. Parallels are often drawn between the flood waters of these myths and the primeval waters found in certain creation myths, as the flood waters are described as a measure for the cleansing of humanity, in preparation for rebirth. Mythologies The Mesopotamian flood stories concern the epics of Ziusudra, Gilgamesh, and Atrahasis. In the Genesis flood narrative, Yahweh decides to flood the earth because of the depth of the sinful state of mankind. Claims of historicity Nanabozho in Ojibwe flood story from an illustration by R.C. See also References Jump up ^ Leeming, David (2004).
Esotericism Esotericism (or esoterism) signifies the holding of esoteric opinions or beliefs, that is, ideas preserved or understood by a small group of those specially initiated, or of rare or unusual interest. The term derives from the Greek, either from the comparative ἐσώτερος (esôteros), "inner", or from its derived adjective ἐσωτερικός (esôterikos), "pertaining to the innermost". The term can also refer to the academic study of esoteric religious movements and philosophies, or to the study of those religious movements and philosophies whose proponents distinguish their beliefs, practices, and experiences from mainstream exoteric and more dogmatic institutionalized traditions. Although esotericism refers to an exploration of the hidden meanings and symbolism in various philosophical, historical, and religious texts, the texts themselves are often central to mainstream religions. Etymology Definition History Methodology Wouter J. Pierre A. Leo Strauss
Origins of Judaism This article discusses the historical roots of Judaism throughout the 1st millennium BCE. For the origins of the modern-day religion of Judaism, see Origins of Rabbinic Judaism. From the 5th century BCE until 70 CE, Israelite religion developed into the various theological schools of Second Temple Judaism, besides Hellenistic Judaism in the diaspora. The text of the Hebrew Bible was redacted into its extant form in this period and possibly also canonized as well. Rabbinic Judaism developed during Late Antiquity, during the 3rd to 6th centuries CE; the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible (the addition of vowels to the consonant text) and the Talmud were compiled in this period. The oldest manuscripts of the Masoretic Biblical tradition however come from the 10th and 11th centuries CE; in the form of the Aleppo Codex of the later portions of the 10th century CE and the Leningrad Codex dated to either 1008 CE or 1009 CE. Historical background Pre-monarchic (tribal religion)
Spiritual Traditiions Judaism Judaism (from the Latin Iudaismus, derived from the Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, and ultimately from the Hebrew יהודה, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew: יהדות, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) is the religion, philosophy and way of life of the Jewish people. Judaism is a monotheistic religion, with the Torah as its foundational text (part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible), and supplemental oral tradition represented by later texts such as the Mishnah and the Talmud. Judaism is considered by religious Jews to be the expression of the covenantal relationship God established with the Children of Israel. Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Judaism claims a historical continuity spanning more than 3,000 years. Defining character and principles of faith Defining character Glass platter inscribed with the Hebrew word zokhreinu - remember us Core tenets 13 Principles of Faith:
Atheist, Gnostic, Theist, Agnostic Too many times I have informed someone that I am an atheist, only to have them reply, “Oh, but how could you know that God doesn’t exist? You’re taking a faith position!” Many headaches later, we finally come to an agreement over the definitions of these words. This arrangement is an attempt to clarify and classify these words, so that their rogue meanings no longer confuse and muddle religious debate. To begin with, here are the four key terms arranged on a graph with their opposites across from them. Now here are the terms defined. The horizontal axis concerns WHAT YOU BELIEVE: The vertical axis concerns WHAT YOU THINK WE CAN KNOW: So, to restate: These four labels can be very useful in describing the way we feel about gods. An atheist agnostic is someone who does not believe in gods and also thinks that the existence of gods cannot be known. A theist gnostic is someone who believes in a god/gods and thinks that the existence of gods can be known.
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East, it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, and adherents were gained in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization. Beliefs Creeds Its main points include: Ten Commandments These are quotes from Deuteronomy 6:4 and Leviticus 19:18.