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Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism

Veneration of Mary in Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholic veneration of Mary, the mother of Jesus, which has grown over time in importance, is manifested not only in prayer but also in the visual arts, poetry and music.[2][3][4][5] Popes have encouraged it, while also taking steps to reform some manifestations of it.[note 1] The Holy See has insisted on the importance of distinguishing "true from false devotion, and authentic doctrine from its deformations by excess or defect".[6] There are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than in other Christian traditions.[7] Marian Movements and Societies with millions of members have arisen from belief in events such as Akita, Fatima and Lourdes and other reasons.[12] From Christ to Mary in the Roman Catholic tradition[edit] Theological basis for the veneration of Mary[edit] Mysteries of Christ and Mary[edit] At the centre of this mystery, in the midst of this wonderment of faith, stands Mary. From veneration to theology[edit]

Immaculate Conception The doctrine of the immaculate conception of Mary concerns her own conception by her mother and father, not Mary's conception of Jesus (the virgin birth of Jesus) nor the perpetual virginity of Mary. Although the belief that Mary was sinless and conceived immaculate was widely held since at least Late Antiquity, the doctrine was not dogmatically defined until December 8, 1854, by Pope Pius IX in his papal bull Ineffabilis Deus. The Feast of the Immaculate Conception is observed on December 8 in many Catholic countries as a holy day of obligation or patronal feast, and in some as a national public holiday. Distinctions[edit] Original sin and actual (personal) sin[edit] Virginal conception[edit] The doctrine of the immaculate conception (Mary being conceived free from original sin) is not to be confused with her virginal conception of her son Jesus. Redemption[edit] Another misunderstanding is that, by her immaculate conception, Mary did not need a saviour. History[edit] Later developments[edit]

Theotokos An 18th-century Russian icon depicting various types of the Theotokos icons Theotokos (/ˌθiəˈtɒkəs/; Greek: Θεοτόκος, transliterated (Greek) Theotókos, translation (Syriac-Aramaic): ܝܳܠܕܰܬ ܐܰܠܳܗܳܐ‎, transliterated (Syriac): Yoldath Alloho) is the Greek title of Mary, the mother of Jesus used especially in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches. Its literal English translations include "God-bearer", "Birth-Giver of God" and "the one who gives birth to God." Less literal translations include "Mother of God." The ancient use of this term is emphasised in Churches of the Syriac Tradition who have been using this title in their ancient liturgies for centuries. Roman Catholics and Anglicans use the title "Mother of God" more often than "Theotokos." Etymology and usage[edit] Theotokos is a compound of two Greek words, Θεός God and τόκος parturition, childbirth. Theology[edit] Use in the early Christian Church[edit] Third Ecumenical Council[edit] Hymns[edit]

Roman Catholic Mariology This article is about Roman Catholic perspectives; for general Christian views, see Mariology. Roman Catholic Mariology is the systematic study of the person of the Blessed Virgin Mary and of her place in the economy of salvation, within the theology of the Catholic Church.[1][2][3] In the Catholic perspective, Mary has a precise place in the plan of salvation and a special place within tradition and devotion.[4][5][6] She is seen as having a singular dignity, and receives a higher level of veneration than all other saints.[7] Roman Catholic Mariology thus studies not only her life but also the veneration of her in daily life, prayer, hymns, art (where she has been a favorite topic), music, and architecture in modern and ancient Christianity throughout the ages.[8][9][10][11] Study of Mary and her place in the Church[edit] Context and components[edit] Maximalism and minimalism[edit] Mariology and Christology[edit] History and development[edit] Dogmatic teachings[edit] Mother of God[edit]

Heavenly Mother (Mormonism) The Heavenly Mother doctrine is mainly taught by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church),[1] the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ,[2][3] and branches of Mormon fundamentalism, such as the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints.[citation needed] The doctrine is not generally recognized by other faiths within the broader Latter Day Saint movement, such as the Community of Christ, where trinitarianism is predominant. In the LDS Church, the Heavenly Mother is sung about in church hymns and briefly discussed in church teaching manuals and sermons.[4] In the heavens are parents single? Some early Mormons considered Snow to be a "prophetess".[10] Later, church president Joseph F. The doctrine is also attributed to several other early church leaders. Early leader George Q. Some church leaders have interpreted the term “God” to represent the divinely exalted couple with both a masculine and feminine half. Early 20th-century church leader B.

The world, the flesh, and the devil In Christian theology, the world, the flesh, and the devil (Latin: mundus, caro, et diabolus; Greek ό κοσμος, ή σαρξ, και ό διαβολος) are often traditionally described as the three enemies of the soul. As the sources of temptation, they are sometimes opposed to the Trinity. The roots of this triad are possibly to be found in Jesus' parable of the Sower: the three scenes of unproductive soil represent "Satan" (birds eating the seed), shallow and unreceptive believers (corresponding to weak "flesh"?), and "the cares of the world and the lure of wealth" (Gospel of Mark 4:15-17). Many Christian sources refer to the world, the flesh, and the devil. Peter Abelard states in his Expositiones that Tria autem sunt quae nos tentant, caro, mundus, diabolus. (There are three things which tempt us, the flesh, the world, and the devil.) Thomas Aquinas refers to the world, the flesh, and the devil in the Summa Theologica. [... or, in modern editions, [...

Triple Goddess (Neopaganism) The Triple Goddess is the subject of much of the writing of Robert Graves, and has been adopted by many neopagans as one of their primary deities. The term triple goddess is infrequently used outside of Neopaganism to instead refer to historical goddess triads and single goddesses of three forms or aspects. In common Neopagan usage the three female figures are frequently described as the Maiden, the Mother, and the Crone, each of which symbolizes both a separate stage in the female life cycle and a phase of the moon, and often rules one of the realms of earth, underworld, and the heavens. These may or may not be perceived as aspects of a greater single divinity. The feminine part of Wicca's duotheistic theological system is sometimes portrayed as a Triple Goddess, her masculine counterpart being the Horned God. The relationship between the neopagan Triple Goddess and ancient religion is disputed, although it is not disputed that triple goddesses were known to ancient religion.

Holy Grail How at the Castle of Corbin a Maiden Bare in the Sangreal and Foretold the Achievements of Galahad: illustration by Arthur Rackham, 1917 The Holy Grail is a dish, plate, stone, or cup that is part of an important theme of Arthurian literature. A grail, wondrous but not explicitly holy, first appears in Perceval le Gallois, an unfinished romance by Chrétien de Troyes:[1] it is a processional salver used to serve at a feast. Chrétien's story attracted many continuators, translators and interpreters in the later 12th and early 13th centuries, including Wolfram von Eschenbach, who makes the grail a great precious stone that fell from the sky. Origins[edit] The Grail was considered a bowl or dish when first described by Chrétien de Troyes. Beginnings in literature[edit] Chrétien de Troyes[edit] Chrétien refers to his object not as "The Grail" but as "a grail" (un graal), showing the word was used, in its earliest literary context, as a common noun. Robert de Boron[edit] Early forms[edit]

Thelema The word thelema is the English transliteration of the Koine Greek noun θέλημα (pronounced [θélima]) "will", from the verb θέλω "to will, wish, purpose." As Crowley developed the religion, he wrote widely on the topic, producing what are collectively termed the Holy Books of Thelema. He also included ideas from occultism, Yoga and both Eastern and Western mysticism, especially the Qabalah.[8] Historical precedents[edit] The word θέλημα (thelema) is rare in classical Greek, where it "signifies the appetitive will: desire, sometimes even sexual",[9] but it is frequent in the Septuagint.[9] Early Christian writings occasionally use the word to refer to the human will,[10] and even the will of God's opponent, the Devil,[11] but it usually refers to the will of God.[12] One well-known example is in the "Lord's Prayer" (Matthew 6:10), “Your kingdom come. Your will (Θελημα) be done, On earth as it is in heaven.” François Rabelais[edit] Francis Dashwood and the Hellfire Club[edit] True Will[edit]

Blood of Christ Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ from the foreskin and later on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and (b) the sacramental blood present in the Eucharist, which is considered by Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran Christians to be the same blood of Christ shed on the Cross. The Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox churches, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Assyrian Church of the East, and Lutherans, together with some Anglicans, believe in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Catholic Church uses the term "Transubstantiation" to describe the change of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ. Eastern Orthodox too have authoritatively used the same term to describe the change, as in The Longer Catechism of The Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church[1] and in the decrees of the 1672 Synod of Jerusalem.[2] History[edit] Theology[edit] Let us pray.

Phra Mae Thorani Phra Mae Thorani (Thai: พระแม่ธรณี), Mae Phra Thorani (Thai: แม่พระธรณี) or Nang Thorani (นางธรณี), known as Wathondara (ဝသုန္ဒရာ) or Wathondare (ဝသုန္ဒရေ) in Burmese, from Pali Vasudhara[n 1]) are Thai and Lao language names for the Khmer language Preah Thorani (Khmer: ព្រះធរណី ឬ នាងគង្ហីងព្រះធរណី), an earth goddess of the Buddhist mythology of the region. She is also known as Suvathara or Sowathara. Etymology[edit] The word "Thorani" is the Royal Thai General System of Transcription romanization of "dharaṇī", a loanword from Pali and Sanskrit for ground, earth[2] and Phra, from the Pali Vara and the Thai Mae (mother). Iconography and symbology[edit] Painting in a Laotian monastery. "Touching the earth" Calling the earth to witness[edit] Buddhist water libation[edit] Photograph of a libation ceremony in 1900. Modern use as a symbol[edit] Phra Mae Thorani is featured in the logo of: Mae Thorani may also appear as a decorative element of Thai folklore. See also[edit] Po Sop Notes[edit]

Daniel in the lions' den Although Peter Paul Rubens' depiction shows Daniel as a young man (top), Daniel would have been over eighty years old at the time of this incident, making Briton Rivière's picture (bottom) more accurate. The story of Daniel in the lions' den is found in the sixth chapter of the Book of Daniel in the Hebrew Bible, and in the lesser known story of Bel and the Dragon in the Greek versions. Daniel is an official in the Persian empire under King Darius. Darius (at the instigation of his other officials) had made a decree that no one was to offer prayer to any god or man except him for a period of thirty days. Daniel continued to pray as was his habit, knowing that praying would have him killed. Dating the narrative[edit] Critical scholars speculate the dating of the authorship of chapter 6. Literary structure[edit] Based on Wayne S. A. B. C. D. D'. C'. B'. A'. Chapter 6[edit] Darius spent the night fasting, unable to sleep. Daniel’s regular prayer[edit] Daniel in the lions' den[edit] [edit]

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