Changing Channel characteristsics Width and depth are simple variables and generally increase downstream as more water is added from tributaries. Width can be derived either from the water surface width (occupied channel width) or from measuring from bank to bank, giving the bank full width. We can calculate the stream order from source to mouth too, and this gives us an indication of the size and shape of river channels. Stream order 1 streams have NO tributaries feeding into them, they are the original streams that start at springs up in the source. Stream order 2 streams occur where two stream order 1 rivers come together at a confluence Stream order 3 streams occur where two stream order 2 rivers come together at a confluence (not a stream order 2 with a 1, it must be the SAME stream order meeting) The stream order continues like this. Cross sectional area is another useful measure, and it shows in metres squared the surface area of a river is you could take a slice through (and stop the water!) Source
How to Survive an Accidental Plunge Over Niagara Falls dbking/Flickr Advertisement - Continue Reading Below On August 14, when a Japanese student slipped off a guardrail above Horseshoe Falls, Niagara's postcard waterfall, she plunged 180 feet. Her body is still missing. While searching for her the next day, authorities found the body of another victim of the falls, an unidentified man. Despite the multiple reports this summer (and the fact that accidentally going over a waterfall makes for good movie drama), the odds of accidentally going over are remote. The Threats Six million cubic feet of water rush over the falls every minute during peak daytime hours (upriver dams change the volume). But rocks aren't the only threat. If you survived the bubbles, the turbulence and darkness underwater would probably disorient anyone who survived the plunge from Niagara Falls. Finally, if you manage to surface, you can float even in a bruising current. The Tips In the face of so many dangers, it's difficult to draw up a game plan.
Upper Course of the River: Waterfalls An other feature found in the upper course of a river, where vertical erosion is dominant, is a waterfall. The highest waterfall in the world is the Angel Falls in Venezuela (see picture right) which have a drop of 979m. Other particularly famous examples include Niagara Falls (North America), the Victoria Falls (on the Zambia / Zimbabwe border) and the Iguazu Falls (South America). Although much smaller in scale, there are many waterfalls in the upper course of UK rivers (e.g. The formation of Waterfalls 1.Waterfalls are found in the upper course of a river. 2. 3. 4. 5. Visualising Waterfall Formation: The labelled diagram of a cross section through a waterfall below, shows the formation process (click on diagram for a larger version).There are also number of excellent animations on the internet which can help you visualise how a waterfall forms. 1. Key Term Check:
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UK winter storms 20 February 2014Last updated at 08:14 ET January's wet weather in numbers Slow threat of groundwater flooding The reasons behind one of the stormiest months Turbulent seas and wave watchers being caught out Aerial imagery and photos along the Thames Eyewitness accounts from storm-hit areas The Army moves in for a "rapid inspection" of flood defences The impact of the floods on wildlife How bad are 2014's floods compared with 2007? GCSE Bitesize: Upper course features BBC NI - Landscapes Unlocked - Clips & Scripts - Rivers, Upper Course The Water Cycle for Kids and Students The water cycle describes how Earth's water is not only always changing forms, between liquid (rain), solid (ice), and gas (vapor), but also moving on, above, and in the Earth. This process is always happening everywhere. Back to the water cycle diagram for students. Animals In the grand scheme of the water cycle, animals may not play a very big role, but all animals, including you, participate in moving water around as part of the water cycle. The water cycle is critical to all animals and life on Earth. There is one creature on Earth that does have a very large impact on the water cycle—human beings. Atmosphere The atmosphere truly is the superhighway in the sky that moves water everywhere over the Earth. The next time you go outside you will be standing in the Earth's atmosphere. The air outside may look invisible, but it is full of molecules, including water molecules, as water vapor. How much does a cloud weigh? Clouds are made of water, and water has weight, so how can they float? Lakes