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Medieval peasants got more vacation time than you

Medieval peasants got more vacation time than you
Life for the medieval peasant was certainly no picnic. His life was shadowed by fear of famine, disease and bursts of warfare. His diet and personal hygiene left much to be desired. But despite his reputation as a miserable wretch, you might envy him one thing: his vacations. Plowing and harvesting were backbreaking toil, but the peasant enjoyed anywhere from eight weeks to half the year off. The Church, mindful of how to keep a population from rebelling, enforced frequent mandatory holidays. As for the modern American worker? It wasn’t supposed to turn out this way: John Maynard Keynes, one of the founders of modern economics, made a famous prediction that by 2030, advanced societies would be wealthy enough that leisure time, rather than work, would characterize national lifestyles. What happened? Fast-forward to the 21st century, and the U.S. is the only advanced country with no national vacation policy whatsoever. Some blame the American worker for not taking what is her due.

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21 hours 21 hours A ‘normal’ working week of 21 hours could help to address a range of urgent, interlinked problems: overwork, unemployment, over-consumption, high carbon emissions, low well-being, entrenched inequalities, and the lack of time to live sustainably, to care for each other, and simply to enjoy life. February 13, 2010 // Written by: Anna Coote, Head of Social PolicyJane Franklin, Project Co-ordinator and Researcher, Social Policy

China History: Chronology, Dynasty Qin Han Tang Song Yuan Ming Qing China, one of the countries that can boast of an ancient civilization, has a long and mysterious history - almost 5,000 years of it! Like most other great civilizations of the world, China can trace her culture back to a blend of small original tribes which have expanded till they became the great country we have today. It is recorded that Yuanmou man is the oldest hominoid in China and the oldest dynasty is Xia Dynasty. From the long history of China, there emerge many eminent people that have contributed a lot to the development of the whole country and to the enrichment of her history. Among them, there are emperors like Li Shimin (emperor Taizong of the Tang), philosophers like Confucius, great patriotic poets like Qu Yuan and so on.

Working time Standard working hours (or normal working hours) refers to the legislation to limit the working hours per day, per week, per month or per year. If an employee needs to work overtime, the employer will need to pay overtime payments to employees as required in the law. Generally speaking, standard working hours of countries worldwide are around 40 to 44 hours per week (but not everywhere: from 35 hours pw in France[3] to up to 112 hours pw in North Korea labour camp [4]), and the additional overtime payments are around 25% to 50% to the normal hourly payments. Maximum working hours refers to the maximum working hours of an employee. The employee cannot work more than the level specified in the maximum working hours law.[5]

Development in the Ecological Age Do you live in a developed nation or a developing nation? If your nation has an extensive system of roads, rail and airports, if it is fully electrified, if it is mostly urban and suburban, if modern medicine is widespread, if literacy and education are near-universal, if most people are connected to the Internet, and if, most crucially, per capita GDP is high, then most people would say you live in a developed nation. Otherwise, it will be classified as developing—still on the way to acquiring these things. Implicit in the developed/developing distinction is the assumption that the course of social and economic evolution exemplified by the developed countries is normal, inevitable and generally desirable.

Ancestral Lines Evolutionary biologists use a cladogram, the treelike diagram of evolutionary branches or clades, to organize species into lines of evolutionary descent across time. Biologists use three types of evidence to deduce evolutionary connections: genetics, morphology, and geologic dating. (Behavior, normally a key part of evolutionary studies, can only be inferred in extinct species — for example, by examining the ecology in which the species flourished and the species adaptations for eating and locomotion.) Analyses of primate fossils and the genetic relatedness of living primates converge to the conclusion that humans and chimpanzees branched from a common ancestor about 7 million years ago. DNA recovered from several uncontaminated Neanderthalensis fossils indicated that modern humans and extinct neanderthals diverged about 400,000 years ago; but more recent studies show that they must have interbred within Europe or the Middle East since then.

Swiss to vote on 2,500 franc basic income for every adult BERNE Fri Oct 4, 2013 3:57pm BST BERNE (Reuters) - Switzerland will hold a vote on whether to introduce a basic income for all adults, in a further sign of growing public activism over pay inequality since the financial crisis. A grassroots committee is calling for all adults in Switzerland to receive an unconditional income of 2,500 Swiss francs (1,741.51 pounds) per month from the state, with the aim of providing a financial safety net for the population. Organisers submitted more than the 100,000 signatures needed to call a referendum on Friday and tipped a truckload of 8 million five-rappen coins outside the parliament building in Berne, one for each person living in Switzerland.

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Post-scarcity economy This would require a sophisticated system of resource recycling, in conjunction with advanced productive technology that enables conditions of material abundance, such as automated systems capable of converting raw materials into finished goods[not verified in body], which in turn enable the free distribution[2] of most or all economic output and the common ownership of the means of production used therefor. The scarcity model[edit] Scarcity is the fundamental economic assumption of having seemingly unlimited human needs and wants in a world of limited resources. Society has insufficient productive resources to fulfill all human wants and needs. Alternatively, scarcity implies that not all of society's goals can be pursued at the same time; trade-offs are made of one good against others. As such, the term "post-scarcity economics" may be somewhat paradoxical.

Growing Spirulina at Home Process June 16, 2011, by Dr. Aaron he popular image of algae farming is bubbling green columns and white-coated scientists, and seems out of reach for ordinary people. Is the experience of algae farming limited to professionals? A growing network of DIY algae farmers is proving that we can all participate, by creating successful algae ponds and growth tanks in our own homes. Studies Find Mysterious Link Between Native Americans And Indigenous Australasians Native Americans who live between the Artic and the southern tip of Chile are thought to have descended from Siberians who crossed the Bering land bridge from the Asian continent some 15,000 years ago. They are the so-called First Americans. But was there just one migration wave or were there multiple founding populations? Two major papers published this week take completely different views, though they’re now working together to see if their data and interpretations can be reconciled. Both studies uncovered a genetic link between Native Americans living in the Amazon today and indigenous groups in Australasia, which includes Australia, New Guinea, and nearby islands in the Pacific. However, according to the Science study, which examined ancient and modern genomes, there was a single wave into the Americas, and the genetic link with Australasia was due to more recent gene flow events.

Who pays for minimum-wage hikes? The poor Raising the minimum wage will reduce poverty. This must be true because the country’s biggest private sector union and the Toronto Star say so. Even Ontario’s registered nurses call a higher minimum wage a “pathway out of poverty.” And nurses wouldn’t lie, would they?