Vocabulary: Concepts and Research Concepts and Research Vocabulary Knowledge is... Learning, as a language based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. (Baker, Simmons, & Kame'enui, 1998) See References. Definitions of key Vocabulary terminology: Contextual Analysis: A strategy readers use to infer or predict a word from the context in which it appears. Expressive Vocabulary: Requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning. Morphemic Analysis: A strategy in which the meanings of words can be determined or inferred by examining their meaningful parts (e.g., prefixes, suffixes, roots, etc.) Receptive Vocabulary: Requires a reader to associate a specific meaning with a given label as in reading or listening. Go to top of page Vocabulary Research Says: The importance of vocabulary knowledge to school success, in general, and reading comprehension, in particular, is widely documented. Hart & Risley, 1995 (see References) The Vocabulary Gap
Méthode #2 Teaching Vocabulary with Francie Alexander Scholastic’s Reading Resources Network is putting the focus on vocabulary. Here, you'll find activities and resources to use in your classroom, a model lesson on video, and an online development session for vocabulary instruction. Plus you’ll discover a plethora — there’s a great vocabulary stretcher — of other resources. Our host is Francie Alexander, Vice President and Chief Academic Officer for Scholastic Education. Francie has taught at all levels, was a district reading consultant for PreK through high school, and has authored professional articles for educators and 25 “books kids can read” for children. Betty Tsang Increasing Vocabulary: Concept Definition Map Observe a model best practice lesson. Motivate and Focus Set Expectations Teach / Model Adapted from Scholastic Red, Improving Reading Comprehension, Grades 3–5 Francie Answers the Tough QuestionsQuestion 1: Why is vocabulary so important? Question 2: What words do I teach? Question 3: How do I teach vocabulary? Listen to more questions
Put Reading First -- K-3 (vocabulary) Vocabulary instruction Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. In general, vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary. Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print. Vocabulary plays an important part in learning to read. Vocabulary also is very important to reading comprehension. Types of vocabulary Researchers often refer to four types of vocabulary listening vocabulary-the words we need to know to understand what we hear. speaking vocabulary-the words we use when we speak. reading vocabulary-the words we need to know to understand what we read. writing vocabulary-the words we use in writing. What does scientifically-based research tell us about The scientific research on vocabulary instruction reveals that (1) most vocabulary is learned indirectly, and (2) some vocabulary must be taught directly. They engage daily in oral language.
www.fltr.ucl.ac.be/fltr/germ/etan/bibs/vocab/cup.html Paul Nation and Robert Waring How much vocabulary does a second language learner need? There are three ways of answering this question. This discussion looks only at vocabulary and it should not be assumed that if a learner has sufficient vocabulary then all else is easy. How many words are there in English? Two separate studies (Dupuy, 1974; Goulden, Nation and Read, 1990) have looked at the vocabulary of Webster's Third International Dictionary (1963), the largest non-historical dictionary of English when it was published. How many words do native speakers know? Teachers of English as a second language may be interested in measures of native speakers' vocabulary size because these can provide some indication of the size of the learning task facing second language learners, particularly those who need to study and work alongside native speakers in English medium schools and universities or workplaces. There is some encouraging news however. What vocabulary does a language learner need?
Suffixes - English Grammar Today A suffix is a letter or group of letters added at the end of a word which makes a new word. The new word is most often a different word class from the original word. In the table above, the suffix -ful has changed verbs to adjectives, -ment, and -ion have changed verbs to nouns. If you see a word ending in -ment, for example, it is likely to be a noun (e.g. commitment, contentment). Often, the suffix causes a spelling change to the original word. In the table above, the -e ending of complicate and create disappears when the -ion suffix is added. beauty, duty + -ful → beautiful, dutiful (-y changes to i)heavy, ready + -ness → heaviness, readiness (-y changes to i)able, possible + -ity → ability, possibility (-le changes to il)permit, omit + -ion → permission, omission (-t changes to ss) A good learner’s dictionary will give you information on the correct spelling of words with suffixes.
Doing it Differently: Tips for Teaching Vocabulary Every Monday my seventh grade English teacher would have us copy a list of 25 words she'd written on the board. We'd then look up the dictionary definitions and copy those down. For homework, we'd re-write each word seven times. Good, now you know it. Test on Friday and never for those 25 words to be seen again. Copying definitions from the dictionary we would probably all agree is not an effective way to learn vocabulary. The truth is, and the research shows, students need multiple and various exposures to a word before they fully understand that word and can apply it. Selecting Words Ah, so many words, so little time. My first year teaching, before my tenth graders began reading Lord of the Flies, I went through every chapter and made lists of all the vocabulary words I thought they'd have trouble with, so that I could pre-teach them. When I looked at those long lists, I began to freak out. Then, here's what to do after the students pick their own words: Ranking Words Teaching Words
Spelling & Vocabulary Website: SpellingCity General Service List The General Service List (GSL) is a list of roughly 2000 words published by Michael West in 1953. The words were selected to represent the most frequent words of English and were taken from a corpus of written English. The target audience was English language learners and ESL teachers. To maximize the utility of the list, some frequent words that overlapped broadly in meaning with words already on the list were omitted. In the original publication the relative frequencies of various senses of the words were also included. Details The list is important because a person who knows all the words on the list and their related families would understand approximately 90-95 percent of colloquial speech and 80-85 percent of common written texts. The GSL evolved over several decades before West’s publication in 1953. There are two major updates of the GSL: 1) the New General Service List (new-GSL) by Brezina & Gablasova published in Applied Linguistics in 2013. See also Notes
Méthode #1 No, It’s Not Arbitrary and Does Make Sense: Teaching the English Punctuation System You might also try putting a period at the end of a “thought.” And what about semi-colons and colons? Well…maybe those are for exceptionally long breaths and thoughts? Okay, I guess you can see that these are no official “Strunk and White” rules about usage but rather the kind of myths about standard punctuation that are perpetuated, sometimes by educators, I’m afraid. 1Attack the Old BeliefI’ll stop short of saying telling students “Forget everything you learned before about punctuation,” but I think a good starting place is finding out what students already know.
Learning Vocabulary Down By the Bay ReadWriteThink couldn't publish all of this great content without literacy experts to write and review for us. If you've got lessons plans, activities, or other ideas you'd like to contribute, we'd love to hear from you. More Find the latest in professional publications, learn new techniques and strategies, and find out how you can connect with other literacy professionals. More Teacher Resources by Grade Your students can save their work with Student Interactives. More Home › Classroom Resources › Lesson Plans Lesson Plan Overview Featured Resources From Theory to Practice Being able to fluently read common vocabulary words can make reading easier and lead to greater comprehension. back to top Word-building activity sheet: Students will use one set of the letter squares from this handout to build some of the most frequently used words in the song "Down By the Bay." Routier, W.J. (2003, May). Proficient readers recognize most words quickly, allowing them to focus on the meaning of text.
New General Service List The New General Service List (NGSL) is a list of approximately 2800 core vocabulary words published by Dr. Charles Browne, Dr. Brent Culligan and Joseph Phillips in March 2013. The words in the NGSL represent the most important high frequency words of the English language for second language learners of English and is a major update of Michael West's 1953 GSL. Although there are more than 600,000 word families in the English language, the 2800 words in the NGSL give more than 90% coverage for learners when trying to read most general texts of English. The main goals of the NGSL project were to (1) modernize and greatly increase the size of the corpus used, and to (2) create a list of words that provided a higher degree of coverage with fewer words than the original GSL.
Example of a word's ID card