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Nineteen Eighty-Four

Nineteen Eighty-Four
History and title[edit] A 1947 draft manuscript of the first page of Nineteen Eighty-Four, showing the editorial development. The Last Man in Europe was an early title for the novel but in a letter dated 22 October 1948 to his publisher Fredric Warburg, eight months before publication, Orwell wrote about hesitating between The Last Man in Europe and Nineteen Eighty-Four.[14] Warburg suggested changing the main title to a more commercial one.[15] Copyright status[edit] The novel will be in the public domain in the European Union and Russia in 2021 and in the United States in 2044.[21] It is already in the public domain in Canada;[22] South Africa,[23] Argentina[24] Australia,[25] and Oman.[26] Background[edit] The banner of the Party in the 1984 film adaptation of the book (I) the upper-class Inner Party, the elite ruling minority, who make up 2% of the population. As the government, the Party controls the population with four ministries: Plot[edit] Characters[edit] Principal characters[edit] Related:  Littérature

George Orwell English author and journalist (1903–1950) Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist, and critic.[1] His work is characterised by lucid prose, social criticism, opposition to totalitarianism, and support of democratic socialism.[2] Blair was born in India, and raised and educated in England. Life[edit] Early years[edit] Blair family home at Shiplake, Oxfordshire Before the First World War, the family moved 2 miles (3 km) south to Shiplake, Oxfordshire, where Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family, especially their daughter Jacintha. While at St Cyprian's, Blair wrote two poems that were published in the Henley and South Oxfordshire Standard.[21][22] He came second to Connolly in the Harrow History Prize, had his work praised by the school's external examiner, and earned scholarships to Wellington and Eton. Policing in Burma[edit] Blair pictured in a passport photo in Burma. Andrew N.

Pride and Prejudice Pride and Prejudice is a novel of manners by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman living near the fictional town of Meryton in Hertfordshire, near London. Page 2 of a letter from Jane Austen to her sister Cassandra (11 June 1799) in which she first mentions Pride and Prejudice, using its working title First Impressions. Though the story is set at the turn of the 19th century, it retains a fascination for modern readers, continuing near the top of lists of "most loved books" such as The Big Read.[1] It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature and receives considerable attention from literary scholars. Plot summary[edit] In the spring, Elizabeth visits Charlotte and Mr Collins in Kent. Mr Darcy[edit]

Brave New World Classic 1932 science fiction novel by Aldous Huxley In 1999, the Modern Library ranked Brave New World as #5 on its list of the 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century.[2] In 2003, Robert McCrum, writing for The Observer, included Brave New World chronologically at #53 in "the top 100 greatest novels of all time",[3] and the novel was listed at #87 on The Big Read survey by the BBC.[4] Title[edit] O wonder!How many goodly creatures are there here!How beauteous mankind is! Translations of the title often allude to similar expressions used in domestic works of literature: the French edition of the work is entitled Le Meilleur des mondes (The Best of All Worlds), an allusion to an expression used by the philosopher Gottfried Leibniz[7] and satirised in Candide, Ou l'Optimisme by Voltaire (1759). History[edit] Huxley said that Brave New World was inspired by the utopian novels of H. Plot[edit] Characters[edit] Benito Hoover, Another of Lenina's lovers. Dr. Others[edit] Theatre[edit]

How to Meditate: An Animated Guide By Maria Popova In his poem about how to meditate, penned decades before neuroscience as we know it, Jack Kerouac described meditation as the way to pump the brain’s “good glad fluid.” Half a century later, neuroscientist Sam Harris made an eloquent case for how meditation stretches our capacity for everyday self-transcendence. This lovely primer by journalist Dan Harris in collaboration with Happify, animated by Katy Davis — who previously animated Brené Brown’s wisdom on vulnerability, human connection, and the difference between empathy and sympathy — explores how to overcome that self-defeating resistance and reap the enormous, far-reaching benefits of meditation: Harris examines the more granular aspects of meditation and self-reflection in his book 10% Happier: How I Tamed the Voice in My Head, Reduced Stress Without Losing My Edge, and Found Self-Help That Actually Works — A True Story (public library).

FREEDOM FROM SCRUTINY TARIQ RAMADAN | September 11th 2008 On the anniversary of the September 11th attacks, Tariq Ramadan laments what's been lost in our pursuit of security ... From INTELLIGENT LIFE magazine, Autumn 2008 Intelligent Life asked 11 eminent people from different walks of life to look back over their adult lifetime and name the freedom we have gained and lost that means the most to them. They were free to take freedom in any sense, political or cultural, social or technological. What mattered was that it mattered to them. Aged 45, professor of Islamic Studies at Oxford University and author of "Islam, the West and the Challenge of Modernity"FREEDOM LOST: As we are celebrating the 60th Anniversary of the UN Declaration, one remains doubtful regarding the progress in the field of our freedoms. Security measures are producing new discriminations and, with their privacy, some are losing their dignity, if not their personal integrity. FREEDOM GAINED (with a condition): Picture credit: Larsz/flickr

V for Vendetta Publication history[edit] When the publishers cancelled Warrior in 1985 (with two completed issues unpublished due to the cancellation), several companies attempted to convince Moore and Lloyd to let them publish and complete the story. In 1988, DC Comics published a ten-issue series that reprinted the Warrior stories in colour, then continued the series to completion. The first new material appeared in issue No. 7, which included the unpublished episodes that would have appeared in Warrior No. 27 and No. 28. Tony Weare drew one chapter ("Vincent") and contributed additional art to two others ("Valerie" and "The Vacation"); Steve Whitaker and Siobhan Dodds worked as colourists on the entire series. Background[edit] David Lloyd's paintings for V for Vendetta in Warrior originally appeared in black-and-white. Cover of Warrior#19, highlighting the comic's conflict between anarchist and fascist philosophies. Plot[edit] Book 1: Europe After the Reign[edit] Book 2: This Vicious Cabaret[edit]

Crime and Punishment Crime and Punishment (Russian: Преступлéние и наказáние, tr. Prestupleniye i nakazaniye; IPA: [prʲɪstʊˈplʲenʲə ɪ nəkɐˈzanʲə]) is a novel by the Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky. It was first published in the literary journal The Russian Messenger in twelve monthly installments during 1866.[1] It was later published in a single volume. It is the second of Dostoyevsky's full-length novels following his return from ten years of exile in Siberia. Crime and Punishment is considered the first great novel of his "mature" period of writing.[2] Crime and Punishment focuses on the mental anguish and moral dilemmas of Rodion Raskolnikov, an impoverished ex-student in St. Creation[edit] Dostoyevsky conceived the idea of Crime and Punishment in the summer of 1865, having gambled away much of his fortune, unable to pay his bills or afford proper meals. At the end of November much had been written and was ready; I burned it all; I can confess that now. — Dostoyevsky's letter to A.P. Plot[edit]

Waiting for Godot Plot[edit] Act I[edit] Estragon soon dozes off, but, after rousing him, Vladimir is not interested in hearing about Estragon's dreams—another recurring motif. Estragon wants to hear an old joke, which Vladimir starts but cannot finish, as he is urgently compelled to rush off and urinate due to a kidney ailment that pains him whenever he laughs. Estragon next suggests that they hang themselves, but they abandon the idea when their strategy seems infeasible. Vladimir and Estragon begin to reflect on the encounter, with Vladimir suspecting that they have met Pozzo and Lucky before. Act II[edit] Pozzo and Lucky unexpectedly reappear, but the rope is much shorter than yesterday, and Lucky now guides Pozzo, rather than being driven by him since Pozzo apparently cannot see in front of him. While Estragon sleeps on, Vladimir is encountered by (apparently) the same boy from yesterday, though Vladimir wonders whether he might be the other boy's brother. Characters[edit] Vladimir and Estragon[edit]

Teacher resources - InThinking InThinking promotes and supports the development of high quality educational resources which incorporate cutting-edge ideas, encourage independent thinking, and help students to prepare effectively for exams. Subject Sites InThinking Subject Sites offer a comprehensive range of resources for new & experienced IBDP teachers. Each site - which is updated weekly - contains hundreds of ready-to-go classroom materials and masses of invaluable tips & advice on every aspect of teaching the course. Why InThinking Subject Sites? [Show][Hide] IB Diploma What people are saying about the sites [Show][Hide] Chemistry "A superb site. "This is a fabulous resource. English B "A great website. "This website is highly motivating from different points of view: the accesible language used, the variety of activities and resources, the fact that we as teachers feel part of it, the possibilty of reflecting and monitoring our daily practices." Physics "I like it a lot. Newsletters Twitter Accounts Resources by Subject

FBI The FBI’s Reading Room contains many files of public interest and historical value. In compliance with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) requirements, some of these records are no longer in the physical possession of the FBI, eliminating the FBI’s capability to re-review and/or re-process this material. Please note, that the information found in these files may no longer reflect the current beliefs, positions, opinions, or policies currently held by the FBI. The image quality contained within this site is subject to the condition of the original documents and original scanning efforts. These older files may contain processing procedures that are not compliant with current FOIA processing standards. All recently scanned images posted to the Reading Room adhere to the NARA 300 DPI standard. Some material contained in this site may contain actions, words, or images of a graphic nature that may be offensive and/or emotionally disturbing.

Alan Moore Alan Moore (born 18 November 1953) is an English writer primarily known for his work in comic books including Watchmen, V for Vendetta, and From Hell.[1] Frequently described as the best graphic novel writer in history,[2][3] he has been called "one of the most important British writers of the last fifty years".[4] He has occasionally used such pseudonyms as Curt Vile, Jill de Ray, Translucia Baboon and The Original Writer. Moore is an occultist, ceremonial magician,[6] and anarchist,[7] and has featured such themes in works including Promethea, From Hell, and V for Vendetta, as well as performing avant-garde spoken word occult "workings" with The Moon and Serpent Grand Egyptian Theatre of Marvels, some of which have been released on CD. Early life[edit] "LSD was an incredible experience. Not that I'm recommending it for anybody else; but for me it kind of – it hammered home to me that reality was not a fixed thing. Alan Moore (2003)[2](pp19–20) Career[edit] Early career: 1978–1980[edit]

Forever Thine The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald—inspired by the parties he had attended while visiting Long Island's north shore—began planning the novel in 1923, desiring to produce, in his words, "something new—something extraordinary and beautiful and simple and intricately patterned."[3] Progress was slow, with Fitzgerald completing his first draft following a move to the French Riviera in 1924. His editor, Maxwell Perkins, felt the book was too vague and convinced the author to revise over the next winter. First published by Scribner's in April 1925, The Great Gatsby received mixed reviews and sold poorly; in its first year, the book sold only 20,000 copies. Historical context[edit] Set on the prosperous Long Island of 1922, The Great Gatsby provides a critical social history of America during the Roaring Twenties within its narrative. Fitzgerald's visits to Long Island's north shore and his experience attending parties at mansions inspired The Great Gatsby's setting. Plot summary[edit] Major characters[edit]

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