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This article is about a philosophical term. For the philosophy journal, see Noûs. In philosophy, common English translations include "understanding" and "mind"; or sometimes "thought" or "reason" (in the sense of that which reasons, not the activity of reasoning).[2][3] It is also often described as something equivalent to perception except that it works within the mind ("the mind's eye").[4] It has been suggested that the basic meaning is something like "awareness".[5] In colloquial British English, nous also denotes "good sense", which is close to one everyday meaning it had in Ancient Greece. This diagram shows the medieval understanding of spheres of the cosmos, derived from Aristotle, and as per the standard explanation by Ptolemy. In Aristotle's influential works, the term was carefully distinguished from sense perception, imagination and reason, although these terms are closely inter-related. Pre-Socratic usage[edit] The first use of the word nous in the Iliad. Xenophon[edit]

Law of Complexity/Consciousness The Law of Complexity/Consciousness is the postulated tendency of matter to become more complex over time and at the same time to become more conscious. The law was first formulated by Jesuit priest and paleontologist Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. Teilhard holds that at all times and everywhere, matter is endeavoring to complexify upon itself, as observed in the evolutionary history of the Earth. For Teilhard, the Law of Complexity/Consciousness continues to run today in the form of the socialization of mankind. Teilhard imagines a critical threshold, the Omega Point, in which mankind will have reached its highest point of complexification (socialization) and thus its highest point of consciousness. Quotes[edit] "The more complex a being is, so our Scale of Complexity tells us, the more it is centered upon itself and therefore the more aware does it become. See also[edit]

Orwellian "Orwellian" is an adjective describing the situation, idea, or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free and open society. It denotes an attitude and a brutal policy of draconian control by propaganda, surveillance, misinformation, denial of truth, and manipulation of the past, including the "unperson" – a person whose past existence is expunged from the public record and memory, practised by modern repressive governments. Often, this includes the circumstances depicted in his novels, particularly Nineteen Eighty-Four.[1][verification needed] Nineteen Eighty-Four uses themes from life in the Soviet Union and wartime life in Great Britain as sources for many of its motifs.[2][3] Orwell's ideas about personal freedom and state authority developed when he was a British colonial administrator in Burma. This often brought him into conflict with literary peers such as W.H. Meanings[edit] Big Brother[edit] Political language[edit] See also[edit]

Tacit knowledge Tacit knowledge (as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge) is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it. For example, stating to someone that London is in the United Kingdom is a piece of explicit knowledge that can be written down, transmitted, and understood by a recipient. However, the ability to speak a language, knead dough, use algebra,[1] or design and use complex equipment requires all sorts of knowledge that is not always known explicitly, even by expert practitioners, and which is difficult or impossible to explicitly transfer to other users. While tacit knowledge appears to be simple, it has far-reaching consequences and is not widely understood. Definition[edit] The term “tacit knowing” or “tacit knowledge” was first introduced into philosophy by Michael Polanyi in 1958 in his magnum opus Personal Knowledge. Tacit knowledge is not easily shared. Tacit knowledge vs. Transmission models[edit]

Aldous Huxley English writer and philosopher (1894–1963) Aldous Leonard Huxley ( AWL-dəs; 26 July 1894 – 22 November 1963) was an English writer and philosopher.[1][2][3][4] His bibliography spans nearly 50 books,[5][6] including novels and non-fiction works, as well as essays, narratives, and poems. Born into the prominent Huxley family, he graduated from Balliol College, Oxford, with an undergraduate degree in English literature. Early in his career, he published short stories and poetry and edited the literary magazine Oxford Poetry, before going on to publish travel writing, satire, and screenplays. He spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death.[7] By the end of his life, Huxley was widely acknowledged as one of the foremost intellectuals of his time. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature nine times,[9] and was elected Companion of Literature by the Royal Society of Literature in 1962.[10] Early life[edit] Career[edit]

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Chardin. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin Théologien, philosophe, géologue et paléontologue Théologie et philosophie du XXe siècle Pierre Teilhard de Chardin. Pierre Teilhard de Chardin ([tɛ.jaʁ.də.ʃaʁ.dɛ̃]) [1], ( , Orcines - , New York) est un jésuite, chercheur, paléontologue, théologien et philosophe français. Dans Le Phénomène humain, il trace une histoire de l'Univers, depuis la pré-vie jusqu'à la Terre finale, en intégrant les connaissances de son époque, notamment en mécanique quantique et en thermodynamique. Éléments de biographie[modifier | modifier le code] En 1912, il rejoint le Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Paris et y collabore avec Marcellin Boule, paléontologue qui avait étudié le premier squelette entier d'un homme de Néandertal et dont il devient un ami. En 1916, il écrit son premier essai, La Vie Cosmique, et en 1919, Puissance spirituelle de la Matière, essais qui annoncent son œuvre plus tardive.

Creativity linked to mental health New research shows a possible explanation for the link between mental health and creativity. By studying receptors in the brain, researchers at the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet have managed to show that the dopamine system in healthy, highly creative people is similar in some respects to that seen in people with schizophrenia. High creative skills have been shown to be somewhat more common in people who have mental illness in the family. "We have studied the brain and the dopamine D2 receptors, and have shown that the dopamine system of healthy, highly creative people is similar to that found in people with schizophrenia," says associate professor Fredrik Ullén from Karolinska Institutet's Department of Women's and Children's Health. "The study shows that highly creative people who did well on the divergent tests had a lower density of D2 receptors in the thalamus than less creative people," says Dr Ullén.

Gnosis Etymology[edit] Gnosis is a feminine Greek noun, which means "knowledge".[2] It is often used for personal knowledge compared with intellectual knowledge (eidein), as with the French connaitre compared with savoir, or the German kennen rather than wissen.[3] Related adjective gnostikos[edit] A related term is the adjective gnostikos, "cognitive,"[4] a reasonably common adjective in Classical Greek.[5] Plato uses the plural adjective γνωστικοί – gnostikoi and the singular feminine adjective γνωστικὴ ἐπιστήμη – gnostike episteme in his Politikos where Gnostike episteme was also used to indicate one's aptitude. Plato The Statesman 258e— Stranger: In this way, then, divide all science into two arts, calling the one practical (praktikos), and the other purely intellectual (gnostikos). In the Hellenistic era the term became associated with the mystery cults. Hellenic philosophy[edit] Judeo-Christian usage[edit] Hellenistic Jewish literature[edit] New Testament[edit] The "Gnostic" sects[edit]

Transpersonal psychology Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, self beyond the ego, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance, spiritual crises, spiritual evolution, religious conversion, altered states of consciousness, spiritual practices, and other sublime and/or unusually expanded experiences of living. The discipline attempts to describe and integrate spiritual experience within modern psychological theory and to formulate new theory to encompass such experience. Transpersonal psychology has made several contributions to the academic field, and the studies of human development, consciousness and spirituality.[3][4] Transpersonal psychology has also made contributions to the fields of psychotherapy[5] and psychiatry.[6][7] Definition[edit] Lajoie and Shapiro[8] reviewed forty definitions of transpersonal psychology that had appeared in academic literature over the period from 1968 to 1991. Development of the academic field[edit] Origins[edit] Dr.

Les chemins de l'intelligence L'intelligence ne dépend pas de la génétique mais de l'aptitude à utiliser pleinement les possibilités de notre esprit. L'important est la façon dont nous traitons et organisons les informations, dont nous interprétons nos expériences, et plus globalement, la façon dont nous nous représentons la réalité. Voici donc quelques clés pour devenir "plus intelligent"... Penser par soi-même Ne pas faire son jugement en fonction de celui des autres, et ne pas prendre pour argent comptant ce qui est dit ou suggéré par les médias, la publicité, les responsables politiques. Celui dont l'esprit ne produit aucune pensée autonome et ne contient rien d'autre que ce qu'on y a déversé est pour ainsi dire "sans valeur ajoutée". Ecouter son intuition L'hémisphère droit du cerveau possède des capacités intuitives qui sont complémentaires de l'intelligence rationnelle du cerveau gauche. L'intuition est capable de prendre en compte une multitude d'éléments dont nous n'avons pas conscience. Penser en 4D

Mnemonist The title mnemonist (derived from the term mnemonic) refers to an individual with the ability to remember and recall unusually long lists of data, such as unfamiliar names, lists of numbers, entries in books, etc. Mnemonists may have superior innate ability to recall or remember, or may use techniques such as the Method of loci. Structure of mnemonic skills[edit] While the innateness of mnemonists' skills is debated, the methods that mnemonists use to memorize are well-documented. Many mnemonists have been studied in psychology labs over the last century, and most have been found to use mnemonic devices. Currently, all memory champions at the World Memory Championships have said that they use mnemonic strategies, such as the method of loci, to perform their memory feats. Skilled memory theory was proposed by K. Encoding[edit] Retrieval[edit] The next step is to create a retrieval structure by which the associations can be recalled. Method of Loci[edit] Speed Up[edit] Innate vs Learned[edit]

Higher consciousness Higher consciousness is the consciousness of a higher Self, transcendental reality, or God. It is "the part of the human being that is capable of transcending animal instincts". The concept developed in German Idealism, and is a central notion in contemporary popular spirituality. Philosophy[edit] Fichte[edit] Fichte distinguished the finite or empirical ego from the pure or infinite ego. Fichte (1762-1814) was one of the founding figures of German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant. According to Michael Whiteman, Fichte's philosophical system "is a remarkable western formulation of eastern mystical teachings (of which he seems to have had no direct knowledge)." Schopenhauer[edit] In 1812 Schopenhauer started to use the term "the better consciousness", a consciousness ... According to Schopenhauer, The better consciousness in me lifts me into a world where there is no longer personality and causality or subject or object. Religion[edit]

Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (/jʊŋ/; German: [ˈkarl ˈɡʊstaf jʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), often referred to as C. G. Jung, was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychotherapist who founded analytical psychology.[2] Jung proposed and developed the concepts of the collective unconscious, archetypes, and extraversion and introversion. His work has been influential not only in psychiatry but also in philosophy, anthropology, archeology, literature, and religious studies. The central concept of analytical psychology is individuation—the psychological process of integrating the opposites, including the conscious with the unconscious, while still maintaining their relative autonomy.[3] Jung considered individuation to be the central process of human development.[4] Jung saw the human psyche as "by nature religious"[5] and made this religiousness the focus of his explorations.[6] Jung is one of the best known contemporary contributors to dream analysis and symbolization. Early years[edit] Childhood family[edit]