Only 29 percent of the world surface is land. The rest is ocean, home to the marine lifeforms. The oceans average nearly four kilometres in depth and are fringed with coastlines that run for 360,000 kilometres. A large proportion of all life on Earth exists in the ocean. Exactly how large the proportion is unknown, since many ocean species are still to be discovered. Marine life is a vast resource, providing food, medicine, and raw materials, in addition to helping to support recreation and tourism all over the world. Many species are economically important to humans, including food fish (both finfish and shellfish). History The observations made in the first studies of marine biology fueled the age of discovery and exploration that followed. The creation of marine labs was important because marine scientists had places to conduct research and process their specimens from expeditions. Subfields Related fields Animals Birds Fish Invertebrates
Related: Marine Biology
Marine Conservation OrganizationsMarineBio is deeply committed to marine conservation and founded on the concept that, by sharing the wonders of the ocean and marine life, people will be inspired to protect it. We hope you will consider becoming a MarineBio Conservation Society member to help us bring the ocean and the conservation message to as many people as possible. There are many other organizations working on marine conservation and other environmental issues such as biodiversity and global warming. We list them here both as a public service and to spread the word. Please Contact us if you have any comments, changes, or suggestions. » Invitation to fellow marine conservation groups For an objective annotated list of the organizations listed below and others, visit Mother Jones magazine's guide to environmental organizations The oceans are downstream of everything. Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC) Blue Ocean Institute Blue Frontier Campaign Cetacean Alliance: Conservation International Environmental Defense
IchthyologyIchthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthus, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes skeletal fish (Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), and jawless fish (Agnatha). While a large number of species have been discovered and described, approximately 250 new species are officially described by science each year. According to FishBase, 32,200 species of fish had been described by March 2012. There are more fish species than the combined total of all other vertebrates: mammals, amphibians, reptiles and birds. History Fish represent approximately 8% of all figurative depictions on Mimbres pottery. The study of fish dates from the Upper Paleolithic Revolution (with the advent of 'high culture'). 1500 BC–40 AD 335 BC–80 AD European Renaissance 16th–17th century Frontipiece from Ichthyologia, sive Opera Omnia de Piscibus by Peter Artedi Modern era Modern Publications
Marine Natural Products and Antagonistic Properties of Marine Organisms for Human Health | Pharma AsiaMarine microorganisms are of considerable interest as a new promising source for bioactive substances. Posted on 01 October 2006 Dr. A. S. NinawePhD, Director,Department of Biotechnology,Block II, CGO Complex, Lodhi Road,New Delh As chemically interesting and bio- logically significant secondary metabolites, marine microorganisms are expected to serve as lead compounds for potential drug development or pharmacological tools for basic research in life sciences. The metabolic and physiological capabilities of marine microorganisms that allow them to survive on their unique habitats also provide a great potential for production of metabolites, which are not found in terrestrial environments. Figure 1. The ocean as a source Over the past decade, marine microbes have been recognized as an untapped resource for novel bioactive compounds. The marine environment ranges from nutrient-rich regions to nutritionally sparse locations where only a few organisms can survive. Life-saving drugs Enzymes
The OceanSeahorses, Seahorse Pictures, Seahorse FactsSeahorses are truly unique, and not just because of their unusual equine shape. Unlike most other fish, they are monogamous and mate for life. Rarer still, they are among the only animal species on Earth in which the male bears the unborn young. Found in shallow tropical and temperate waters throughout the world, these upright-swimming relatives of the pipefish can range in size from 0.6 inches (1.5 centimeters) to 14 inches (35 centimeters) long. Male seahorses are equipped with a brood pouch on their ventral, or front-facing, side. When mating, the female deposits her eggs into his pouch, and the male fertilizes them internally. Because of their body shape, seahorses are rather inept swimmers and can easily die of exhaustion when caught in storm-roiled seas. They anchor themselves with their prehensile tails to sea grasses and corals, using their elongated snouts to suck in plankton and small crustaceans that drift by.
15 Deadliest Beach CreaturesKeep away from any of these 15 deadly creatures when you next visit the beach. 1. Portuguese Man-of-War Jellyfish Not a true jellyfish, the Portuguese Man-of-War is a siphonophore – a colony of organisms living together. Source 2. The Marble Cone snail shell looks beautiful but the sea creature inside is deadlier than any other possible beach inhabitant listed here. Source 3. Ocean-going trawlers are where most sea snake bites occur since the snake can be hauled in along with desirable catch. Source 4. The marine snail which inhabits cone shells are found in reefs all around the globe. Source 5. The Dornorn, commonly called the “stonefish” is among the most venomous beach creatures on the planet. Source 6. Box jellyfish, known commonly as sea wasp, is probably the most dangerous beach creature listed here. Source 7. A Blue-Ringed Octopus, athis golf ball sized sea creature has enough venom to kill as many as 26 people within minutes. Source 8. 9. Source 10. Source 11. Source 12. Source 13. Source
Who Are The Extremophiles?Diatoms can be found living in a wide variety of extreme environments, including ancient Antarctic Ice. Some believe they may even exist on Europa and in interstellar dust. The above diatom, Surirella, was collected from the alkaline and hypersaline Mono Lake. Details An extremophile is an organism that thrives under "extreme" conditions. The term extremophile is relatively anthropocentric. Most terms used to describe extremophiles are generally straightforward. Acidophile: An organism that grows best at acidic (low) pH values. Cyanobacteria, the first ever oxygenic photosynthesizers, are said to be the source of chloroplasts in eukaryotes. Endolith: An organism that lives inside rock or in the pores between mineral grains.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric AdministrationGlobal carbon dioxide concentrations surpass 400 ppm Greenhouse gas rise is 'significant milestone'Sea ShepherdSiphonophores