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Collapse: Mesopotamia

Collapse: Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia was known as the land between two rivers, the Tigris to the north and the Euphrates to the south. Rains were seasonal in this area, which meant that the land flooded in the winter and spring and water was scarce at other times. Farming in the region depended on irrigation from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. In ancient times, many resources in Mesopotamia were scarce or absent, which stimulated trade within the region and beyond. Supported by lucrative trade with its neighbors, Mesopotamia grew to become a powerful empire. Mashkan-shapir was a typical Mesopotamian city, located about 20 miles from the Tigris River and connected to the river by a network of canals. Poisoned fields: A contributor to collapse Along with factors such as war and changes in the environment, scientists now believe irrigation techniques played an important role in Mashkan-shapir's collapse. In Mesopotamia, irrigation was essential for crop production. Could this happen today?

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Mesopotamia, A History of. A Place For Civilization To Begin Mesopotamia Edited By: Robert Guisepi Mesopotamia is a region, not a country. Refer to the individual Peoples that made up Mesopotamia; the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, and to some degree the Hittites, Phoenicians and Persians Life in Old Babylonia: The Importance of Trade Activity 1. How Do We Know the Babylonians Traded? In this activity, students refer to a natural resource map of the region to learn the source of materials for Old Babylonian artifacts reviewed online. Mesopotamia, a hot, dry region subject to floods, became fertile enough to produce a surplus of grain thanks largely to a system of canals first built perhaps a thousand years before the Old Babylonian period. In this way, agricultural products became available for trade.

The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago Mesopotamia - the land between the rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates - is an ancient Greek term used by archaeologists to refer to the area now roughly equivalent to the modern country of Iraq. The Mesopotamian collection of the Oriental Institute Museum was acquired almost exclusively through archaeological excavations. The first of these - the University of Chicago Oriental Exploration Fund's expedition to Bismaya (ancient Adab) - worked in Iraq from 1903-1905. During the 1930's the Babylonian Section of the Iraq Expedition excavated four sites on the lower Diyala River, and today the Nippur Expedition is continuing its work, begun in 1948, at the holy city of Nippur.

Ancient Mesopotamia - The Sumerians Ancient Mesopotamia and the Sumerians The word Mesopotamia comes from Greek words meaning "land between the rivers." The rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates. Common Core Social Studies Companion Mesopotamia: c. 3500-1200 BC/BCE Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, social, and religious structures of the civilizations of Mesopotamia. 6.11 Explain the significance of polytheism (the belief that there are many gods) as the religious belief of the people in Mesopotamian civilizations. 6.10 Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power. Explore the agricultural practices and technological devices that led to the rise of civilization in Mesopotamia. Meet the nomadic people who became farmers.

The Seven Wonders - Hanging Gardens of Babylon Some stories indicate the Hanging Gardens towered hundreds of feet into the air, but archaeological explorations indicate a more modest, but still impressive, height. (Copyright Lee Krystek, 1998) The city of Babylon, under King Nebuchadnezzar II, must have been a wonder to the ancient traveler's eyes. "In addition to its size," wrote Herodotus, a Greek historian in 450 BC, "Babylon surpasses in splendor any city in the known world." Herodotus claimed the outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet thick and 320 feet high.

Learning about Ancient Mesopotamian Religion and Culture Located in the Tigris-Euphrates valley was the land of Mesopotamia. It was here that the world’s first cities were founded between 4000 – 3500 BC by the Sumerian people. They developed their own belief system, with a variety of gods and goddesses. They developed religious practices and rituals for worshiping these powerful deities. Their daily lives were also much different than those of the previous hunter-gatherer groups that wandered the world in a constant search for resources. The cultures of Mesopotamia had a polytheistic belief system, which means that the people believed in multiple gods instead of just one.

Civilization - National Geographic Society Civilization is a complex way of life that came about as people began to develop urban settlements. The earliest civilizations developed after 3000 BCE, when the rise of agriculture allowed people to have surplus food and economic stability. Agricultural populations advanced beyond village life, and many people no longer had to practice farming at all. Civilizations first appeared in Mesopotamia, in what is now Iraq, then in Egypt. Civilizations thrived in the Indus Valley by 2500 BCE, in China by 1500 BCE and in Central America, what is now Mexico, by 1200 BCE. Civilizations developed on every continent except Antarctica.

Phillip Martin's You Be the Judge of Hammurabi's Code Hammurabi, the Priest King Hammurabi (ca. 1792 - 1750 BC) united all of Mesopotamia under his forty-three year reign of Babylon. Although Hammurabi's Code is not the first code of laws (the first records date four centuries earlier), it is the best preserved legal document reflecting the social structure of Babylon during Hammurabi's rule. About the Code Two hundred eighty-two laws, concerning a wide variety of abuses, justify Hammurabi's claim of having acted "like a real father to his people . . . [who] has established prosperity . . . and (gave) good government to the land." See for Yourself The laws were discovered in 1901 on a stela now in the Louvre Museum of Paris, France. What Other Have to Say Every now and then, I hear from people who enjoy the site.

HISTORY OF MESOPOTAMIA The conqueror of Ur is a usurper, which is no doubt why he adopts the name Sargon - meaning the 'true king'. He is Semitic in origin, and tradition states that he begins life as a fruit grower. He gradually conquers the Sumerian cities - first Kish, then Uruk, then Ur - before founding a capital city of his own, Akkad. GEOGRAPHY, LAND AND WEATHER MESOPOTAMIA Baylonian maps Strategically situated in the heart of the Near East and northeastern part of the Middle East, Mesopotamia was located south of Persia (Iran) and Anatolia (Turkey), east of ancient Egypt and the Levant (Lebanon, Israel, Jordan and Syria) and east of the Persian Gulf. Almost completely landlocked, its only outlet to sea is the Fao peninsula, a small chunk of land wedged between modern-day Iran and Kuwait, which opens to the Persian Gulf, which in turn opens into the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. Much of the agricultural land is in the fertile valleys and plains between the Tigris and Euphrates and their tributaries. Much of the agricultural land was irrigated. The forest are found predominantly in the mountains. Occupied by desert and alluvial plains, modern Iraq is the only country in the Middle East that has good supplies of water and oil.

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