Timelines The story of vaccines did not begin with the first vaccine–Edward Jenner’s use of material from cowpox pustules to provide protection against smallpox. Rather, it begins with the long history of infectious disease in humans, and in particular, with early uses of smallpox material to provide immunity to that disease. Evidence exists that the Chinese employed smallpox inoculation (or variolation, as such use of smallpox material was called) as early as 1000 CE. Edward Jenner’s innovations, begun with his successful 1796 use of cowpox material to create immunity to smallpox, quickly made the practice widespread. Louis Pasteur’s 1885 rabies vaccine was the next to make an impact on human disease. The middle of the 20th century was an active time for vaccine research and development. Innovative techniques now drive vaccine research, with recombinant DNA technology and new delivery techniques leading scientists in new directions.
Italian Renaissance Art (1400–1600) | Art History Teaching Resources Images: Donatello, David, mid-fifteenth centuryBrunelleschi, Dome for Florence Cathedral, 1420–35Brunelleschi, San Lorenzo, mid-fifteenth centuryMasaccio, Trinity, c. 1425Masaccio, Tribute Money, c. 1427Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa, c. 1505Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, c. 1495Raphael, School of Athens, c. 1510Raphael, Madonna of the Meadows, c. 1505Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Ceiling and Creation of Adam, c. 1510Michelangelo, David, 1501–4Titian, Venus of Urbino, 1538Parmigianino, Madonna of the Long Neck, 1534-1540Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Last Judgment, 1537-1541Sofonisba Anguissola, Self-Portrait at the Easel, 1556Sofonisba Anguissola, Portrait of the Artist’s Sisters, 1555Annibale Carracci, The Beaneater, 1584-1585Annibale Carracci, Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine, 1585-1587 The Renaissance section sometimes presents difficulties for a couple reasons. Glossary: Renaissance: meaning “rebirth,” the Renaissance refers to the art of Europe made between 1300–1600.
‘The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu,’ by Joshua Hammer Photo THE BAD-ASS LIBRARIANS OF TIMBUKTUAnd Their Race to Save the World’s Most Precious ManuscriptsBy Joshua Hammer278 pp. Simon & Schuster. $26. In the summer of 1826, a Scotsman named Alexander Gordon Laing became the first European to set foot in Timbuktu, a city that would become synonymous with mysterious remoteness. The inhabitants of Timbuktu would have been amused by the British imperialist assumption that their city had been “discovered.” While Europe was still groping its way through the dark ages, Timbuktu was a beacon of intellectual enlightenment, and probably the most bibliophilic city on earth. That ancient literary heritage, and the threat it faces from radical Islam, is the subject of Joshua Hammer’s book “The Bad-Ass Librarians of Timbuktu,” part history, part scholarly adventure story and part journalistic survey of the volatile religious politics of the Maghreb region. Hammer delights in the explosion of medieval scholarship that took place in Timbuktu.
Cities and Buildings Database Home »Cities and Buildings Database The Cities and Buildings Database is a collection of digitized images of buildings and cities drawn from across time and throughout the world, available to students, researchers and educators on the web. Begun in 1995, the collection was conceived as a multi-disciplinary resource for students, faculty, and others in the academic community. In 1999, with the help of the Digital Libraries Initiative Program and the Center for Information System Optimization, we adopted a new search engine. You are free to link to these pages, but we request that when you do you provide us with your URL; this will help us to track usage, and also justify our efforts to expand the resource. All files on this site are copyright controlled as indicated. For more information contact: Meredith L. Contributor Guide The Cities/Buildings Database is always on the lookout for new sources of images. When contributing please be aware that turn around time can be slow. Acknowledgements
Filosoferen in groep Filosoferen is een vorm van intensief leven. In de omgang met mensen uit zich dit in een bereidheid tot onderzoek naar de waarheid en de waarde van heersende denkbeelden, ideeën en overtuigingen. Er zijn allerlei varianten : de Lipman-traditie in het filosoferen met jongeren en kinderen de Nelson-traditie van de socratische gespreksmethode de Böhmiaanse open dialoog-traditie Een gesprek over wat belangrijk is : filosoferen met kansengroepen … Luister naar het interview met Kristof over filosoferen met kinderen op radio 1 : In deze workshop of training probeert u enkele varianten uit die bij uw doelgroep passen. Kristof Van Rossem begeleidt jaarlijks sessies Filosoferen met Kinderen en Jongeren voor diverse scholen in Vlaanderen en Nederland. In De Moeial, december 2013 verscheen een interview met Kristof en twee andere begeleiders in het filosoferen met kinderen, zie hier of klik hier (pdf, 209 kB).
GIORGIO VASARI'S LIVES OF THE ARTISTS This page will, in time, contain all of Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists, all in unabridged English translations. Each Life will be supplimented by illustrations and a bibliography. Comments and suggestions are welcome. Please note that the undersigned claims all rights and privileges under current copyright laws. Medieval History Lectures: Dr. Lynn H. Nelson | Lectures in Medieval History | Professor Emeritus, Medieval History, University of Kansas | www.vlib.us/medieval Please take into consideration the purpose and audience for which the lecture notes listed above were written. For a good many years, I taught a three-credit-hour freshman survey entitled Introduction to Medieval History to enrollments of room-size - generally three hundred students. During those years, the University of Kansas maintained an open enrollment policy in which all graduates from accredited Kansas high schools were admitted to the University. Consequently, my lectures were both basic and episodic, concentrating on major events and topics that would prepare the students for further enrollments in Humanities courses and attempting to demonstrate that the study of History could be both useful and enjoyable. Those lectures entitled Thoughts on Reading . . . are an exception to this characterization. I might add that I assert no proprietary interest in these materials but offer them freely for public use.
MIT Visualizing Cultures Reusable Art Donatello's David – ItalianRenaissance.org Donatello, David, c. 1440-1460, bronze Perhaps Donatello’s landmark work – and one of the greatest sculptural works of the early Renaissance – was his bronze statue of David. This work signals the return of the nude sculpture in the round figure, and because it was the first such work like this in over a thousand years, it is one of the most important works in the history of western art. The work was commissioned by Cosimo de’Medici for the Palazzo Medici, but we do not know when during the mid-fifteenth century Donatello cast it. It was originally placed on top of a pedestal in the center of the courtyard in the Palazzo Medici, so the viewer would be looking up at it from below (unlike the view we typically get of it in photographs). David is shown at a triumphal moment within the biblical storyline of his battle with the Philistine, Goliath. Before Donatello’s work, David was typically depicted as a king, given his status in the Old Testament. Donatello: Sculptor , by Roberta J.
La antigua Roma aún importa A finales del siglo IV d. C., el río Danubio era el paso de Calais de Roma. Lo que solemos denominar las invasiones bárbaras, la llegada de hordas (quizá muchedumbres) al Imperio Romano, podrían calificarse también como unos movimientos masivos de inmigrantes económicos o refugiados políticos del norte de Europa. Y las autoridades romanas tenían tan poca idea de afrontar aquella crisis como las nuestras, además de que, por supuesto, eran menos compasivas. Es tentador pensar en los antiguos romanos como una versión de nosotros mismos. En Italia, la vida romana también tenía aspectos que nos resultan familiares. También había debates interminables sobre el reparto de cereal gratis o subvencionado a los ciudadanos que vivían en la capital. Pero tal vez no sea tan sencillo. Al otro lado de la cuerda de equilibrista, sin embargo, se encuentra un territorio completamente ajeno. Lo vemos también en la geografía política de la Europa actual. Lo importante aquí es el debate, no la resolución.
The Theory of Two Truths in India 1. Ābhidharmikas / Sarvāstivāda (Vaibhāṣika) In the fourth century, Vasubandhu undertook a comprehensive survey of the Sarvāstivāda School's thought, and wrote a compendium, Treasury of Knowledge, (Abhidharmakośakārikā AbhiDK; Mngon pa ku 1b–25a) with his own Commentary on the Treasury of Knowledge (Abhidharmakośabhāṣya AbhiDKB, Mngon pa ku 26b–258a). This commentary not only offers an excellent account of the Sarvāstivādin views, including the theory of the two truths, but also offers a sharp critique of many views held by the Sarvāstivādins. The Sarvāstivādin's ontology or the theory of the two truths makes two fundamental claims. the claim that the ultimate truth consists of irreducible spatial units (e.g., atoms of the material category) and irreducible temporal units (e.g., point-instant consciousnesses) of the five basic categories, and the claim that the conventional truth consists of reducible spatial wholes or temporal continua. 1.1 Conventional truth 1.2 Ultimate truth 2. 3.