High-quality graphene is strong, light, nearly transparent and an excellent conductor of heat and electricity. Its interactions with other materials and with light and its inherently two-dimensional nature produce unique properties, such as the bipolar transistor effect, ballistic transport of charges and large quantum oscillations. At the time of its isolation in 2004, researchers studying carbon nanotubes were already familiar with graphene's composition, structure and properties, which had been calculated decades earlier. The combination of familiarity, extraordinary properties, surprising ease of isolation and unexpectedly high quality of the obtained graphene enabled a rapid increase in graphene research. Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene". Definition History The theory of graphene was first explored by P.
Related: science fiction and future