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Skandha

Skandha
In the Theravada tradition, suffering arises when one identifies with or clings to an aggregate. Suffering is extinguished by relinquishing attachments to aggregates. The Mahayana tradition further puts forth that ultimate freedom is realized by deeply penetrating the nature of all aggregates as intrinsically empty of independent existence. Etymology[edit] Outside of Buddhist didactic contexts, "skandha" can mean mass, heap, pile, gathering, bundle or tree trunk.[3][c] According to Thanissaro, the buddha gave a new meaning to the term "khanda": Prior to the Buddha, the Pali word khandha had very ordinary meanings: A khandha could be a pile, a bundle, a heap, a mass. Description in the Sutta Pitaka[edit] The Sutta Pitaka of the Pali Canon contains the teachings of the Buddha, as preserved by the Theravada tradition. The five skandhas[edit] The sutras describe five aggregates:[d] Suffering and release[edit] Understanding dukkha[edit] Clinging causes future suffering[edit] ... No essence[edit] Related:  Key Concepts

Rebirth (Buddhism) Within one life and across multiple lives, the empirical, changing self not only objectively affects its surrounding external world, but also generates (consciously and unconsciously) its own subjective image of this world, which it then lives in as 'reality'. It lives in a world of its own making in various ways. It "tunes in" to a particular level of consciousness (by meditation or the rebirth it attains through its karma) which has a particular range of objects - a world - available to it. It furthermore selectively notices from among such objects, and then processes what has been sensed to form a distorted interpretive model of reality: a model in which the 'I am' conceit is a crucial reference point. The Buddha lived at a time of great philosophical creativity in India when many conceptions of the nature of life and death were proposed. There are many references to rebirth in the early Buddhist scriptures. Buddhist meditation teachers suggest [references?] BuddhaNet

Reality in Buddhism Reality in Buddhism is called dharma (Sanskrit) or dhamma (Pali). This word, which is foundational to the conceptual frameworks of the Indian religions, refers in Buddhism to the system of natural laws which constitute the natural order of things. Dharma is therefore reality as-it-is (yatha-bhuta). The teaching of the Buddha constituting as it does a method by which people can come out of their condition of suffering (dukkha) involves developing an awareness of reality (see mindfulness). Buddhism thus seeks to address any disparity between a person's view of reality and the actual state of things. Buddhism addresses deeply philosophical questions regarding the nature of reality. One of the most discussed themes in Buddhism is that of the emptiness (sunyata) of form (matter), an important corollary of the transient and conditioned nature of phenomena. Some consider that the concept of the unreality of "reality" is confusing. Reality in Buddhist sutras[edit] "What is the Real (tattva)?

Satipatthana Sutta "This is the direct way [Pāli: ekāyano ... maggo],[4] monks, for the purification of beings, for the overcoming of sorrow and lamentation, for the extinguishing of suffering and grief, for walking on the path of truth, for the realization of nibbāna...." (Vipassana Research Institute, 1996, pp. 2, 3.) The meditation techniques identified in this sutta can be practiced individually or successively or in an interwoven fashion. Text[edit] Title translation and related literature[edit] English translations of the title, "Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta," include: "The Arousing of Mindfulness Discourse" (Soma, 1999)"The Foundations of Mindfulness Discourse" (Nyanasatta, 1994)"The Frames of Reference Discourse" (Thanissaro, 1995) According to Anālayo (2006, pp. 29–30), Thanissaro (2000) and Nyanaponika (1996, pp. 9–10), part of the reason for the variety in this title's translation has to do with how the compound Pāli word "satipaṭṭhāna" is analyzed. Various Recensions & Canonical placement[edit] Contents[edit]

Pratītyasamutpāda Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद; Pali: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda) is commonly translated as dependent origination or dependent arising. The term is used in the Buddhist teachings in two senses: On a general level, it refers to one of the central concepts in the Buddhist tradition—that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions.On a specific level, the term is also used to refer to a specific application of this general principle—namely the twelve links of dependent origination. Etymology[edit] Pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद) consists of two terms: pratitya: "having depended"samutpada: "arising", "rise, production, origin"[web 1] The term has been translated into English variously as dependent origination, dependent arising,[citation needed] interdependent co-arising,[citation needed] conditioned arising,[citation needed] and conditioned genesis. The Dalai Lama explains: In Sanskrit the word for dependent-arising is pratityasamutpada.

Vijñāna Vijñāna (Sanskrit; Devanagari: विज्ञान) or viññāṇa (Pāli; Devanagari: विञ्ञाण)[1] is translated as "consciousness," "life force," "mind,"[2] or "discernment."[3] Buddhism[edit] This section considers the Buddhist concept primarily in terms of Early Buddhism's Pali literature as well as in the literature of other Buddhist schools. Pali literature[edit] Throughout Pali literature, viññāṇa[1] can be found as one of a handful of synonyms for the mental force that animates the otherwise inert material body.[6] In a number of Pali texts though, the term has a more nuanced and context-specific (or "technical") meaning. (1) as a derivative of the sense bases (āyatana), part of the experientially exhaustive "All" (sabba); (2) as one of the five aggregates (khandha) of clinging (upadana) at the root of suffering (dukkha); and, Sense-base derivative[edit] Hence, in this context, viññāṇa includes the following characteristics: The aggregates[edit] "And why do you call it 'consciousness'? "... "No, lord."

Ātman (Buddhism) Whereas Buddhism generally stresses the non-Self teachings of the Buddha, some Mahāyāna Buddhist sutras and tantras present cataphatic Buddhist teachings with positive language by asserting the ultimate reality of an atman [Self], which is equated with the essential, ultimate nature of mind (Dalai Lama — see relevant section below). This doctrine, also known as Tathāgatagarbha, is also seen as the inborn potential to become a Buddha. The Theravāda Dhammakaya Movement of Thailand also asserts the reality of the atman, which it equates with nirvana. Śāntideva (an 8th-century Indian Buddhist philosopher and practitioner) informs us that in order to be able to deny something, we first of all need to know what it is that we are denying.[2] Without contacting the entity that is imputed You will not apprehend the absence of that entity. (Bodhicaryāvatāra) Candrakīrti contextualises ātman as follows:[3][4] Ātman is an essence of things that does not depend on others; it is an intrinsic nature.

Śūnyatā Śūnyatā, (Sanskrit, also shunyata; Pali: suññatā), in Buddhism, translated into English as emptiness, voidness,[1] openness,[2] spaciousness, vacuity, is a Buddhist concept which has multiple meanings depending on its doctrinal context. In Theravada Buddhism, suññatā often refers to the not-self (Pāli: anatta, Sanskrit: anātman)[note 1] nature of the five aggregates of experience and the six sense spheres. Suññatā is also often used to refer to a meditative state or experience. Etymology[edit] "Śūnyatā" (Sanskrit noun from the adj. śūnya or śhūnya: "zero, nothing") is usually translated as "emptiness". Sunya comes from the root svi, meaning "hollow", plus -ta "-ness", therefore "hollow, hollowness". This word is ultimately derived from the Proto-Indo European root k̑eu- which means 'to swell' and also 'to grow'.[5] Development of the concept[edit] After the Buddha, emptiness was further developed by Nāgārjuna and the Mādhyamaka school, an early Mahāyāna school. Pali Canon[edit] Sakya[edit]

Three marks of existence The Three marks of existence, within Buddhism, are three characteristics (Pali: tilakkhaṇa; Sanskrit: trilakṣaṇa) shared by all sentient beings, namely: impermanence (anicca); suffering or unsatisfactoriness (dukkha); non-self (Anatta). There is often a fourth Dharma Seal mentioned:[citation needed] Together the three characteristics of existence are called ti-lakkhana in Pali or tri-laksana in Sanskrit. By bringing the three (or four) seals into moment-to-moment experience through concentrated awareness, we are said to achieve wisdom—the third of the three higher trainings—the way out of samsara. Thus the method for leaving samsara involves a deep-rooted change in world view. Anicca[4][edit] [Pronounced Anitcha/Anitya] All compounded phenomena (things and experiences) are inconstant, unsteady, and impermanent. Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche states that in the four seals of the Mahayana, Nirvana should be viewed as "beyond extremes". Dukkha[edit] Anatta[edit] See also[edit] Buddhism

Nirvana Nirvāṇa (Sanskrit: निर्वाण; Pali: निब्बान nibbāna ; Prakrit: णिव्वाण) literally means "blown out", as in a candle.[1] It is most commonly associated with Buddhism.[web 1] In Indian religions, the attainment of nirvana is moksha,[note 1] liberation from the cycle of rebirth.[3][note 2] In the Buddhist context nirvana refers to the imperturbable stillness of mind after the fires of desire, aversion, and delusion have been finally extinguished.[1] In Hindu philosophy, it is the union with the divine ground of existence Brahman (Supreme Being) and the experience of blissful egolessness. Etymology[edit] Phonetics[edit] ni (nir, nis, nih): out, away from, without, a term that is used to negateva: blowing as in blowing of the wind and also as smelling[6]na: nor, never, do not, did not, should not[7] Vana is forest in/of the forest/forests; composed of flowers and other items of the forest.,[7] but vana has both phones van and va. Abhidharma[edit] Origins[edit] Jainism[edit] Buddhism[edit] Moksha[edit]

Karma and Anatta or Non-self and Kamma - Buddha's world (from"Buddhaloka", the Newsletter of the Buddhist Society of Victoria, July/August 1997 by Ajahn Jagaro The teaching on Anatta or non-self is one of the most fundamental aspects of Buddhism, and may be the most important feature which makes the Buddha's teaching quite unique. The other aspect of the teaching which is sometimes seen to be difficult to reconcile or explain, interms of anatta, is the teaching of kamma or the law of kamma, which is the law of cause and results. The causes we create through our actions of body, speech and mind, and the consequences that arise from these actions. The law of kamma states that as we sow so shall we reap, and whatever kamma we shall do, we will be the heirs that inherit it. So this evening I would like to speak on these two aspects of the teaching and also how they relate to each other, possibly illustrate how there is no contradiction at all. This is the appearance which seems real. When this is, that is.

Cetanā Cetanā (Sanskrit, Pali; Tibetan Wylie: sems pa) is a Buddhist term commonly translated as "volition", "intention", "directionality", etc. It can be defined as a mental factor that moves or urges the mind in a particular direction, toward a specific object or goal.[1][2] Cetanā is identified within the Buddhist teachings as follows: Definitions[edit] Theravada[edit] Bhikkhu Bodhi states: Cetana...is the mental factor that is concerned with the actualization of a goal, that is, the conative or volitional aspect of cognition. The Atthasālinī (I, Part IV, Chapter I, 111) states that cetanā has the characteristic of coordinating the associated dhammas (citta and the other cetasikas) on the object and that its function is 'willing'. ...There is no such thing as volition in the four planes of existence without the characteristic of coordinating; all volition has it. Mahayana[edit] Geshe Tashi Tsering states: Intention [...] is also called volition. The Abhidharma-samuccaya states: What is cetanā?

Mental factors (Buddhism) Mental factors (Sanskrit: caitasika; Pali: cetasika; Tibetan Wylie: sems byung), in Buddhism, are identified within the teachings of the Abhidharma (Buddhist psychology). They are defined as aspects of the mind that apprehend the quality of an object, and that have the ability to color the mind. Within the Abhidharma, the mental factors are categorized as formations (Sanskrit: saṅkhāra) concurrent with mind (Sanskrit: citta).[1][2][3] Alternate translations for mental factors (Sanskrit: caitasika) include "mental states", "mental events", and "concomitants of consciousness". Mental factors are aspects of the mind that apprehend the quality of an object and have the ability to color the mind. The Tibetan for mental factors, semlay jungwa chö (Skt. chaitasika dharma), means phenomena arising from the mind, suggesting that the mental factors are not primary to the mind but arise within a larger framework. In Mahavibhasa and Abhidharma-kosa, 46 mental factors have been listed as below:

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