The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period. The end of the period is commonly estimated to have occurred about 500 BCE, and 150 BCE has been suggested as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature. Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition alone, and a literary tradition set in only in post-Vedic times. Despite the difficulties in dating the period, the Vedas can safely be assumed to be several thousands of years old. The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilisation, was probably centred early on in the northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent, and spread after 1200 BCE to the Ganges Plain. History Second urbainsation
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Shakti - Power and Femininity in Indian ArtLong ago, there reigned a mighty king named Ila. Once while hunting, he came upon a grove where Shiva was making love with Parvati, and surprise of surprises, Shiva had taken the form of a woman to please her. Everything in the woods, even the trees had become female, and as he approached even King Ila himself was transformed into a woman! Thus says the Shaktisangama Tantra: Woman is the creator of the universe, the universe is her form; woman is the foundation of the world, she is the true form of the body. In woman is the form of all things, of all that lives and moves in the world. No wonder even the most powerful of gods, like Shiva above, crave to enter the feminine form, hoping to acquire at least some of her glorious power. According to the Devi-Mahatmya: By you this universe is borne, By you this world is created, O Devi, by you it is protected. The earliest term applied to the divine feminine, which still retains its popular usage, is Shakti. 1). The Yoni 'Aho! Elgood, Heather.
Maurya EmpireThe Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322–185 BCE. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (modern Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh) in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent, the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna). The Empire was founded in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander's Hellenic armies. By 316 BCE the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I, a Macedonian general from Alexander's army, gaining additional territory west of the Indus River. History Chandragupta Maurya and Chanakya Bindusara
Siva and Saivism SectsIndus Valley CivilizationThe major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and the most widespread among them, covering an area of 1.25 million km2. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the now dried up Sarasvati River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan together with its tributaries flowed along a channel, presently identified as that of the Ghaggar-Hakra River on the basis of various scientific studies. The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. Discovery and history of excavation Chronology Geography Cities
Aspects of Lord SivaBy Jayaram V The subject regarding the aspects of Shiva (Siva) can be approached from many perspectives. Here I have presented Shiva as the Supreme Brahman Himself, a claim validated by the Vedas themselves in numerous verses such as the ones found in the Svetasvatara Upanishad. Thus in presenting Shiva as the Cosmic Being, I have not broken any tradition. However, I have taken some liberties in associating his popular names to the well known aspects and manifestations of Brahman based upon their meaning and significance. In Saiva tradition, Lord Shiva is considered the highest, supreme Brahman Himself. The Unmanifested aspect - Nirguna Brahman Manifested aspect - Saguna Brahman Material aspect - Viraj Individual aspects - Amsas or Emanations Maheswara or Mahadeva As in case of Brahman, the unmanifested aspect of Shiva is beyond our knowledge. Isvara or Parama Shiva Viraj, Rudra or Shiva Amsas or Emanations Creation is an extension of the Supreme Brahman. Suggested Further Reading
Water Animal GuideQuick find... Filter By: type diet region continent all Fish This combination might work, but unfortunately the animals with those characteristics don't live with us at the zoo. Bonnethead Shark Butterfly Fish Cownose Stingray Damsel Epaulette Shark Garden Eel Orbicular Batfish Zebra SharkSignificance of Lord SivaBy Jayaram V Of all the Hindu Gods none appealed to the emotions of a Hindu mind as much as Lord Shiva (also spelled as Siva), the dweller of the mountains and the bearer of the trident, who with His third eye symbolizes the all knowing awareness of the very Brahman. Although universally acknowledged as one of the trinity gods of Hinduism, to His followers, He is Maheswara, representing the Trinity all by Himself, His different aspects manifesting themselves as the creator, preserver and destroyer of the worlds He creates. Historians believe that He was a pre-Vedic god who was admitted into the Vedic Pantheon because of His immense popularity among many non-Aryan tribes. In the Mahabharata we come across several references to Him. With the popularity of Saivism a great deal of literature grew around Him, which came to be recognized as Agama literature. Megasthanese mentioned the worship of Siva in his book Indika. He is known by many names and tittles. His names are endless.
20 New Lines from The Epic of Gilgamesh Discovered in Iraq, Adding New Details to the StoryThe Epic of Gilgamesh, one of the oldest narratives in the world, got a surprise update last month when the Sulaymaniyah Museum in the Kurdistan region of Iraq announced that it had discovered 20 new lines of the Babylonian-Era poem of gods, mortals, and monsters. Since the poem has existed in fragments since the 18th century BC, there has always been the possibility that more would turn up. And yet the version we’re familiar with — the one discovered in 1853 in Nineveh — hasn’t changed very much over recent decades. Since that time, the History Blog notes: the [Sulaymaniyah] museum has a matter of policy paid smugglers to keep artifacts from leaving the country, no questions asked. That’s a pretty good deal for these extra lines that not only add to the poem’s length, but have now cleared up some of the mysteries in the other chapters. via The History Blog Related content: Hear the World’s Oldest Instrument, the “Neanderthal Flute,” Dating Back Over 43,000 Years
Siva and saivismListen to an invocation to Lord Shiva as Rudra, the god of turbulent winds and storms, Composed by Jayaram V Lord Shiva is the most important, most popular, most ancient and most representative God of Hinduism, worshipped in India from the beginning of Hindu civilization. What we know about Shiva is much less than what we do not know. His worship dates back to prehistoric times. While many historians and educated Hindus erroneously credit the Vedic civilization as the main source of Hinduism, the truth is Shaivism is the heart of Hinduism, from which the main concepts of spiritual, ascetic, tantric and ritual traditions of Hinduism emerged. In the tussle between the Brahmanical religion and Saivism, the latter won decisively. Until modern times, Saivism was the most popular sect of Hinduism, a position currently enjoyed by Vaishnavism mainly due to the patronage it receives from the teacher traditions of Brahmanical origin and the propaganda that goes with it.