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Grandma's Experiences Leave Epigenetic Mark on Your Genes

Grandma's Experiences Leave Epigenetic Mark on Your Genes
Why can’t your friend “just get over” her upbringing by an angry, distant mother? Why can’t she “just snap out of it”? The reason may well be due to methyl groups that were added in childhood to genes in her brain, thereby handcuffing her mood to feelings of fear and despair. Of course, it is generally not possible to sample the brains of living people. But examining blood samples in humans is routine, and Szyf has gone searching there for markers of epigenetic methylation. Sure enough, in 2011 he reported on a genome-wide analysis of blood samples taken from 40 men who participated in a British study of people born in England in 1958. All the men had been at a socioeconomic extreme, either very rich or very poor, at some point in their lives ranging from early childhood to mid-adulthood. Timing, in other words, matters. A case study in the epigenetic effects of upbringing in humans can be seen in the life of Szyf’s and Meaney’s onetime collaborator, Frances Champagne. The Mark Of Cain

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The Science Of How These Twin Sisters Look So Different It's not uncommon for siblings to bear no resemblance to one another, but at first glance you may struggle to believe that these two beautiful girls, who appear to be polar opposites of one another, are not only sisters, but are in fact twins. Isn’t genetics fascinating? As you can see, Lucy, the girl on the left, has fair skin, bright blue eyes and red hair. Maria, on the other hand, has much darker skin, deep brown eyes and bouncy, black ringlets atop her head. Understandably, the now 18-year-old sisters left a few jaws hanging when they popped out, and people rarely believe they are twins. Reese Witherspoon Started Her Own Company Because Women 'Deserve Better' From Hollywood Reese Witherspoon is a woman who leads by example. Two years ago, she started her own production company after seeing six of her favorite actresses "fighting over a really crappy role in a movie," she told journalists at the annual Oscar Nominee Luncheon Monday in Los Angeles. "We deserve better," she said.

EphA4 is Involved in Sleep Regulation But Not in the Electrophysiological Response to Sleep Deprivation Study objectives: Optimal sleep is ensured by the interaction of circadian and homeostatic processes. Although synaptic plasticity seems to contribute to both processes, the specific players involved are not well understood. The EphA4 tyrosine kinase receptor is a cell adhesion protein regulating synaptic plasticity. Study of Holocaust survivors finds trauma passed on to children's genes Genetic changes stemming from the trauma suffered by Holocaust survivors are capable of being passed on to their children, the clearest sign yet that one person’s life experience can affect subsequent generations. They also analysed the genes of their children, who are known to have increased likelihood of stress disorders, and compared the results with Jewish families who were living outside of Europe during the war. “The gene changes in the children could only be attributed to Holocaust exposure in the parents,” said Yehuda.

Most accurate genetic map to date is published 21 July 2011 You can’t use this map to find out where you’re going, but it does tell us a lot about where we came from: it’s the world’s most advanced human genetic map, as constructed by a consortium of scientists led by researchers at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, and Harvard Medical School. Published in 'Nature' today, it is also the first genetic map to be made using data from African Americans. It reveals surprising differences between African and non-African populations in the way our genetic information is subject to change. ‘Three-parent’ babies explained: what are the concerns and are they justified? Britain will be on the path to becoming the first country in the world to permit the creation of “three-parent” babies if MPs vote in favour of changing the law on Tuesday. The procedure replaces a small amount of faulty DNA in a mother’s egg with healthy DNA from a second woman, so that the baby would inherit genes from two mothers and one father. The idea is to prevent certain genetic diseases being passed on to children. Most experts are in favour but a handful have raised concerns, as has the Church of England. British MPs have been given the right to vote with their consciences.

The Cure for Acid Reflux, Heartburn and Bloating That No Doctor Thinks to Prescribe : The Hearty Soul Ever get a burning feeling after eating a meal? You may be suffering from acid reflux. Many people dismiss acid reflux as a mere annoyance that you can get rid of using an antacid. But this is the WRONG way to think about it. Acid reflux is one of the body’s warning signals that something may be amiss. In this article, we’ll take you through the importance of stomach acid and how to test and maintain your stomach’s acid levels. Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors So a fear of spiders may in fact be an inherited defence mechanism laid down in a families genes by an ancestors' frightening encounter with an arachnid. Dr Brian Dias, from the department of psychiatry at Emory University, said: "We have begun to explore an underappreciated influence on adult behaviour – ancestral experience before conception. "From a translational perspective, our results allow us to appreciate how the experiences of a parent, before even conceiving offspring, markedly influence both structure and function in the nervous system of subsequent generations. "Such a phenomenon may contribute to the etiology and potential intergenerational transmission of risk for neuropsychiatric disorders such as phobias, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder." In the study, which is published in the journal of Nature Neuroscience, the researchers trained mice to fear the smell of cherry blossom using electric shocks before allowing them to breed.

Pericytes regulate the blood–brain barrier Affiliations Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Division of Vascular Biology, Karolinska Institute, Scheeles väg 2, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden Annika Armulik, Guillem Genové, Maarja Mäe, Maya H. Nisancioglu, Elisabet Wallgard, Colin Niaudet, Liqun He, Jenny Norlin, Karin Strittmatter & Christer Betsholtz AstraZeneca AB, Clinical Development, SE-431 83 Mölndal, Sweden Per Lindblom The Electron Microscopy Unit, Institute for Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 420, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden Bengt R. Johansson Present addresses: Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Dag Hammarskjölds väg 20, Uppsala University, SE-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden (E.W.); Applied Biosystems Sweden, Lindhagensgatan 76, PO Box 12650, SE-112 92 Stockholm, Sweden (L.H.); German Cancer Research Center DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany (K.S.). Elisabet Wallgard, Liqun He & Karin Strittmatter