SPARQL (pronounced "sparkle", a recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language) is an RDF query language, that is, a semantic query language for databases, able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in Resource Description Framework format. It was made a standard by the RDF Data Access Working Group (DAWG) of the World Wide Web Consortium, and is recognized as one of the key technologies of the semantic web. On 15 January 2008, SPARQL 1.0 became an official W3C Recommendation, and SPARQL 1.1 in March, 2013. SPARQL allows for a query to consist of triple patterns, conjunctions, disjunctions, and optional patterns. Implementations for multiple programming languages exist. "SPARQL will make a huge difference" making the web machine-readable according to Sir Tim Berners-Lee in a May 2006 interview. Advantages The example below demonstrates a simple query that leverages the ontology definition "foaf", often called the "friend-of-a-friend" ontology.
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Jena (framework)Jena supports serialisation of RDF graphs to:Web Ontology LanguageThe OWL family contains many species, serializations, syntaxes and specifications with similar names. OWL and OWL2 are used to refer to the 2004 and 2009 specifications, respectively. Full species names will be used, including specification version (for example, OWL2 EL). When referring more generally, OWL Family will be used. History Early ontology languages Ontology languages for the web In 2000 in the United States, DARPA started development of DAML led by James Hendler. In March 2001, the Joint EU/US Committee on Agent Markup Languages decided that DAML should be merged with OIL. The EU/US ad hoc Joint Working Group on Agent Markup Languages was convened to develop DAML+OIL as a web ontology language. OWL started as a research-based revision of DAML+OIL aimed at the semantic web. Semantic web standards The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application, enterprise, and community boundaries.
RDF PrimerThe Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. This Primer is designed to provide the reader with the basic knowledge required to effectively use RDF. It introduces the basic concepts of RDF and describes its XML syntax. It describes how to define RDF vocabularies using the RDF Vocabulary Description Language, and gives an overview of some deployed RDF applications. It also describes the content and purpose of other RDF specification documents. 1. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a language for representing information about resources in the World Wide Web. RDF is intended for situations in which this information needs to be processed by applications, rather than being only displayed to people. RDF is based on the idea of identifying things using Web identifiers (called Uniform Resource Identifiers, or URIs), and describing resources in terms of simple properties and property values. <? 2. (URL).
12 Devs of XmasI’d like to start off by asking what seems like quite a simple question: What is the difference between data and information? And taking it a step further, where does knowledge fit into this definition? Not as easy to answer as you might expect, is it! Before we start getting our hands dirty creating some awesome data visualisations, it’s going to be useful to learn the definitions of – and difference between – these three words. Data is a set of unprocessed facts (the word comes from the latin datum which means “that which is given”). Information is what you get after you’ve processed the data. Knowledge is perhaps the most difficult to define, but the definition which I think makes most sense in this instance is how we use our past experiences to decide what to do based on information. So what are we going to build, and what with? There are a number of tools out there to help you to create charts and visualisations. A brief introduction to d3 There are four main parts to a d3 project:
Argotic Syndication Frameworkmikeaddison93/blueprintsREX | Jerry’s Brain app: background and support pageThank you for buying and installing the Jerry’s Brain app (if you haven’t yet but would like to, click here). This page should explain what you’ve gotten into and where to turn with questions or comments. I did not create TheBrain app, nor am I in charge of the servers or the App Store side. First, some important things you should know: Jerry’s Brain is an experiment, one person’s visual journal, not a professionally published database. You can learn a bunch more by watching this short intro to my Brain. My Brain is always accessible freely through your desktop browser at JerrysBrain.com, but that version doesn’t work well on other devices. What is this software? Jerry’s Brain is built on PersonalBrain, PC/Mac/Linux software created by TheBrain, a company based in Los Angeles. Who are you? In December 1997, when I first saw PersonalBrain, I was a technology industry analyst, and it was my job to interview startups like this one. Why are you doing this?
Faceted navigation for document discoveryBetter search with faceted navigation Text search is one of the most important ways that users of enterprise content can find the documents they need. Unfortunately, there are a number of reasons why enterprise text search systems often work less well than search of the public Internet (Enterprise Search: Tough Stuff, Rajat Mukherjee and Jianchang Mao. ACM Queue vol. 2, no. 2, April 2004). The main reason is that most enterprise content isn't cross-linked, so the search system doesn't have the page rank information that identifies "good" pages on a topic. Thus there is an opportunity to improve search within enterprises by using metadata. While there are several different ways for a user to specify metadata conditions, this article is about one that has special advantages: faceted navigation. Back to top Example of faceted navigation The faceted navigation search interface of Croton is shown in Figure 1. This example illustrates three key features of faceted navigation: Figure 1. Table 1.
D3.js - Data-Driven DocumentsTool For Thought« Battle Of The Sexes, cont. | Main | DevonThink Continued » January 29, 2005 Tool For Thought This week's edition of the Times Book Review features an essay that I wrote about the research system I've used for the past few years: a tool for exploring the couple thousand notes and quotations that I've assembled over the past decade -- along with the text of finished essays and books. I suspect there will be a number of you curious about the technical details, so I've put together a little overview here, along with some specific observations. The software I use now is called DevonThink, and I'm sorry to report that it is only available for Mac OS X. I talked in the Times essay about using the tool as a springboard for new ideas and inspiration. These are all books that I have transcribed digital passages from over the past 10 years or so -- you can see how many quotes for each book in the little number in parentheses after each title. This is where it gets interesting. Comments Thanks. Doug